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Table 3 Univariate and adjusted analysis of variables associated with high PTE scores among adolescent men (n = 325)

From: Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention

  Low PTE score High PTE score p-value High PTE score vs. Low PTE score
Variables n % n % Wilcoxon/Chisq OR 95% CI   AOR 95% CI  
Socio-demographic characteristic
Age at interview (per year, median Q1,Q3) 17 15,18 18 16,18 <.001 1.37 1.19 1.59 1.40 1.21 1.63
Years lived in Soweto
 Since birth 133 76.9 109 74.2 0.059 Ref    Ref   
 ≥ 5 years 31 17.9 20 13.6   0.79 0.42 1.46 0.75 0.39 1.43
 < 5 years 9 5.2 18 12.2   2.44 1.05 5.65 2.78 1.14 6.76
Ethnicity
 Zulu 99 56.9 67 44.4 0.174 Ref      
 Xhosa 18 10.3 21 13.9   1.72 0.85 3.48 Not Selected   
 Sotho 21 12.1 19 12.6   1.34 0.67 2.67   
 Tswana 10 5.8 16 10.6   2.36 1.01 5.52   
 Other ethnicities 26 14.9 28 18.5   1.59 0.86 2.95   
Employment
 Student 147 85.0 117 77.5 0.193 Ref      
 Unemployed 20 11.56 24 15.89   1.51 0.79 2.86 Not Selected   
 Employed 6 3.5 10 6.6   2.09 0.74 5.93   
Housing
 Brick house/Flat owned by family 123 70.7 97 64.2 0.414 Ref      
 Brick house/Flat rented by family/Hostel/Other 5 2.9 4 2.7   1.01 0.27 3.88    
 RDP house/Shack 46 26.44 50 33.11   1.38 0.85 2.23    
Food Insecurity
 Low 39 22.4 20 13.3 0.026 Ref    Ref   
 Medium 51 29.3 37 24.5   1.41 0.71 2.81 1.58 0.76 3.29
 High 84 48.3 94 62.3   2.18 1.18 4.03 2.63 1.36 5.09
Household Social Grant
 No 81 47.9 60 40.3 0.170 Ref    Not Selected   
 Yes 88 52.1 89 59.7   1.37 0.87 2.13   
Incarceration history
 No 148 92.5 110 89.4 0.367 Ref      
 Yes 12 7.5 13 10.6   1.46 0.64 3.32    
Sexual behaviour and HIV
HIV testing history
 No 99 57.2 88 58.3 0.848 Ref      
 Yes 74 42.8 63 41.7   0.96 0.62 1.49    
HIV Result
 Positive 3 1.7 2 1.3 0.940 Ref      
 Negative 69 39.7 58 38.4   1.26 0.20 7.81    
 Unknown/Never tested 102 58.6 91 60.3   1.34 0.22 8.19    
Sex Ever
 No 77 44.3 39 25.8 0.001 Ref    Not includeda   
 Yes 97 55.8 112 74.2   2.28 1.42 3.65   
Ever STI
 No 85 48.9 88 58.3 0.001 Ref    Not includeda   
 Yes 12 6.9 24 15.9   1.93 0.91 4.11   
 Never had sex 77 44.3 39 25.8   0.49 0.30 0.80   
Sexually Active P6M
 No 41 24.1 39 26.4 0.001 Ref    Not Includeda   
 Yes 52 30.6 70 47.3   1.42 0.80 2.49   
 Never had sex 77 45.3 39 26.4   0.53 0.30 0.95   
Inconsistent condom use
 Never had sex 77 45.8 39 26.9 0.002 Ref    Not Selected   
 No 44 26.2 49 33.8   2.20 1.26 3.85   
 Yes 47 28.0 57 39.3   2.39 1.39 4.13   
More than 1 partner in the L6M
 No 23 13.6 28 19.4 0.016 Ref    Not Includeda   
 Yes 28 16.6 38 26.4   1.11 0.53 2.33   
 Never had sex/Sexually inactive 118 69.8 78 54.2   0.54 0.29 1.01   
Substance use and mental health variables
Alcohol use in L6M
 No 63 36.4 41 27.2 0.075 1.09 0.47 2.52    
 Yes 110 63.6 110 72.9   0.65 0.28 1.51    
Probable Depression
 No 129 74.1 100 66.2 0.119 Ref    Not Selected   
 Yes (score ≥ 24) 45 25.9 51 33.8   1.54 0.96 2.47   
Drug use ever in L6M (excluding marijuana use)
 No 165 94.8 132 87.4 0.018 Ref    Not Selected   
 Yes 9 5.2 19 12.6   2.64 1.16 6.02   
  1. Note: AORs and p-values in bold are significant (<.05)
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence intervals, OR odds ratio, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CES-D center for epidemiologic studies- depression scale, RDP reconstruction and development programme, STI, sexually transmitted infection, HIV human immunodeficiency virus
  3. aNot included due to Collinearity