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Table 4 Factors associated with limited health literacy* stratified by age groups – results of the multivariate logistic regression**

From: Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey

  15–29 30–45 46–64 65–99
OR 95 % CI p-value OR 95 % CI p-value OR 95 % CI p-value OR 95 % CI p-value
Gender
 Male 0.87 0.56–1.34 0.518 1.12 0.74–1.68 0.602 1.11 0.78–1.58 0.562 0.96 0.61–1.50 0.861
 Female ref  
Educational level
 Low 1.05 0.55–2.01 0.872 1.40 0.75–2.62 0.293 1.55 0.92–2.61 0.101 1.16 0.60–2.27 0.661
 Medium 0.72 0.38–1.36 0.309 1.14 0.66–1.97 0.631 0.83 0.52–1.32 0.424 0.91 0.49–1.71 0.776
 High ref  
Migrant background
 Yes 1.79 0.84–3.82 0.133 3.22 1.43–7.24 0.005 2.14 1.03–4.47 0.042 1.12 0.46–2.74 0.798
 No ref  
Functional health literacy
 Limited 1.84 0.94–3.60 0.074 1.87 1.00–3.49 0.050 2.01 1.27–3.16 0.003 2.25 1.35–3.75 0.002
 Adequate ref  
Social status
 Low 3.08 1.43–6.63 0.004 9.31 3.56–24.34 <0.001 4.61 2.22–9.57 <0.001 4.97 2.16–11.43 <0.001
 Medium 1.27 0.76–2.13 0.355 1.90 1.15–3.16 0.013 1.68 1.05–2.70 0.030 2.28 1.19–4.38 0.014
 High ref  
Doctor visits
 0–2 ref  
 2–5 2.14 1.22–3.75 0.008 5.51 3.14–9.66 <0.001 2.11 1.42–3.14 <0.001 2.51 1.51–4.18 <0.001
 6 or more 2.23 0.60–8.24 0.229 3.83 1.83–8.03 <0.001 3.44 2.07–5.73 <0.001 3.22 1.85–5.60 <0.001
  1. OR > 1 means increased likelihood of having limited health literacy, significant differences are printed in bold (p<0.05)
  2. *measured as perceived difficulty to perform health information tasks
  3. **adjusted for all variables in the models