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Table 3 Factors associated with limited health literacy* stratified by age groups - results of bivariate analyses

From: Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey

  15–29 30–45 46–64 65–99
  % (n) p-value** % (n) p-value** % (n) p-value** % (n) p-value**
Gender
 Male 45.5 (95) 0.413 46.5 (104) 0.771 55.2 (159) 0.989 63.7 (145) 0.250
 Female 49.6 (83)   47.8 (127)   55.2 (182)   68.9 (162)  
Educational level
 Low 51.2 (78) 0.362 58.1 (72) 0.019 65.8 (120) 0.003 70.2 (133) 0.254
 Medium 43.2 (69)   43.4 (118)   50.2 (159)   65.3 (131)  
 High 49.7 (29)   43.9 (42)   53.4 (62)   59.3 (41)  
Migrant background
 Yes 62.9 (24) 0.039 72.1 (26) 0.001 73.2 (33) 0.011 73.7 (26) 0.307
 No 45.5 (154)   44.8 (201)   53.8 (309)   65.7 (281)  
Functional health literacy
 Limited 66.9 (36) 0.002 60.6 (40) 0.018 69.7 (85) <0.001 78.9 (102) <0.001
 Adequate 44.0 (141)   45.1 (191)   51.6 (257)   61.5 (205)  
Social status
 Low 68.9 (33) 0.002 82.3 (34) <0.001 78.3 (56) <0.001 81.5 (71) <0.001
 Medium 47.0 (103)   48.0 (159)   55.4 (241)   65.5 (209)  
 High 37.4 (37)   33.4 (36)   38.3 (38)   46.7 (24)  
Doctor visits
 0–2 43.0 (127) 0.008 37.8 (135) <0.001 44.2 (143) <0.001 51.0 (57) <0.001
 3–5 62.1 (42)   75.2 (67)   64.1 (117)   68.9 (133)  
 6 or more 68.0 (8)   66.5 (29)   72.9 (81)   74.1 (116)  
Total 47.3 (178)   47.2 (231)   55.2 (341)   66.4 (307)  
  1. *measured as perceived difficulty to perform health information tasks
  2. **p-values from chi-square tests, significant differences are printed in bold (p<0.05)