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Table 3 Summary of most common results

From: Screening and vaccination as determined by the Social Ecological Model and the Theory of Triadic Influence: a systematic review

Field/Topic Item(s) Articles using SEM Articles using TTI
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Location USA 25 62.5 17 37.0
Canada 2 5.0 1 2.2
India 2 5.0 - 0.0
Netherlands - 0.0 7 15.2
Australia 1 2.5 3 6.5
Study participantsa Women 14 26.9 1 1.6
Books/journal articles 10 19.2 4 6.3
Men 7 13.5 - 0.0
Students - 0.0 22 34.9
Parents/guardians 1 1.9 9 14.3
Adolescents - 0.0 8 12.7
Aim/Objective To form or evaluate interventions 12 30.0 14 30.4
Determine the acceptance or non-acceptance of screening, vaccination or treatment 11 27.5 1 2.2
Determine the cause of behavior 7 17.5 19 41.3
Explore views 3 7.5 2 4.3
Disease/Condition Breast cancer 6 15 - 0.0
Colorectal cancer 4 10 1 2.2
Cervical cancer 3 7.5 - 0.0
Substance abuse - 0.0 23 50.0
Skin cancer - 0.0 1 2.2
Intervention Screening 29 72.5 2 4.3
Vaccination 9 22.5 - 0.0
Substance Abuse/Risk Behavior 5 12.5 20 43.5
Study design (primary) Cross-sectional 5 12.5 16 34.8
Case study 4 10.0 1 2.2
Cohort 2 5.0 4 8.7
Longitudinal 0 0.0 9 19.6
Randomized controlled trial 0 0.0 5 10.9
Study design (secondary) Simple overviews 12 30.0 4 8.7
Systematic reviews 3 7.5 2 4.3
Guideline 1 2.5 3 6.5
Sampling strategya Judgmental 14 26.9 17 27.0
Convenience 11 21.2 20 31.7
Simple random 4 7.7 9 14.3
Stratified 4 7.7 3 4.8
Snowball 1 1.9 8 12.7
Not reported 11 21.2 19 30.2
Data collection methoda Secondary data 15 28.8 12 19.0
Interviews 14 26.9 9 14.3
Questionnaires 13 25.0 41 65.1
Not reported 1 1.9 1 1.6
Outcome variablesa Screening was practiced 19 36.5 2 3.2
Screening is not practiced 3 5.8 - 0.0
Vaccination is practiced 8 15.4 - 0.0
Vaccination not practiced 5 9.6 - 0.0
Risk behavior is practiced 1 1.9 40 63.5
Risk behavior is not practiced 2 3.8 19 30.6
Not reported 8 15.4 6 9.5
Positive predictors Positive influences and surroundings 18 45.0 21 45.7
Having knowledge or awareness 18 45.0 5 10.9
Recommendations from healthcare providers 13 32.5 1 2.2
Access to healthcare providers or facilities 13 32.5 3 6.5
Personal beliefs 6 15.0 13 28.3
enforcing policies/rules 9 22.5 6 13.0
Not reported 10 25.0 13 28.3
Negative predictors Negative personal beliefs 15 37.5 17 37.0
Negative influences and surroundings 13 32.5 28 60.9
Lack of access to healthcare providers or facilities 11 27.5 2 4.3
Culture of the group of people 4 10.0 7 15.2
Not reported 15 37.5 11 23.9
  1. aFor these items the percentage is calculated over 52 for the SEM and over 63 for the TTI due to multiple study participants. The percentage in general is calculated over the total number of accepted studies, which are 40 for the SEM and 46 for the TTI