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Table 4 Basic Characteristics of all the participants by BMI status showing Odds Ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI)

From: Urban–rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations: a multi-country cross-sectional study

Factors Obesity vs Normal weight Overweight vs Normal weight Overweight/obese vs Normal weight
  Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
  OR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI)
Sex p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 P = 0.005 p <0.0001 P < 0.0001
Male 1 1 1 1 1 1
Female 3.71 (2.73, 5.04) 2.57 (1.75, 3.78) 2.00 (1.49, 2.68) 1.59 (1.13,2.24) 2.71 (2.11, 3.50) 2.10 (1.56, 2.84)
Age Group, Years p <0.0001 P < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 P = 0.001 p <0.0001 p < 0.0001
 18–34 1 1 1 1 1 1
 35–44 2.99 (2.04, 4.38) 1.29 (0.79, 2.11) 2.07 (1.42, 3.01) 1.24 (0.81,1.90) 2.48 (1.80, 3.41) 1.24 (0.85, 1.81)
> = 45 4.97 (3.41, 7.25) 1.82 (1.10, 3.00) 3.03 (2.09, 4.39) 1.67 (1.07, 2.60) 3.89 (2.82, 5.37) 1.61 (1.08, 2.41)
Marital Status p = 0.009 p = 0.55 p < 0.0001 p =0.03 p =0.0001 p =0.05
- Never Married 1 1 1 1 1 1
- Married/Living together 1.69 (1.17, 2.45) 1.56 (0.95, 2.56) 2.13 (1.43, 3.19) 1.71 (1.06, 2.77) 1.88 (1.36, 2.59) 1.70 (1.13, 2.56)
Separated/divorced/widowed/ other 2.01 (1.18, 3.42) 1.40 (0.68, 2.88) 2.81 (1.62, 4.88) 2.03 (1.04, 3.94) 2.35 (1.48, 3.74) 1.81 (0.99, 3.29)
Country site p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p <0.0001 P < 0.0001 p <0.0001 P < 0.0001
Rural Uganda 1 1 1 1 1 1
Peri-urban Uganda 1.28 (0.68, 2.42) 1.30 (0.64, 2.61) 0.58 (0.37, 0.90) 0.66 (0.40, 1.07) 0.73 (0.49, 1.09) 0.75 (0.48, 1.18)
Nigeria 4.99 (2.46, 10.10) 5.24 (2.41, 11.43) 1.62 (0.93, 2.81) 1.74 (0.94, 3.22) 2.33 (1.42, 3.85) 2.56 (1.45, 4.53)
South Africa 18.94 (10.41, 34.44)) 14.10 (7.51,26.49) 2.86 (1.84, 4.45) 2.42 (1.49, 3.94) 6.29 (4.20, 9.42 4.97 (3.18, 7.78)
Tanzania 8.38 (4.32, 16.23) 6.69 (3.32, 13.48) 1.93 (1.15, 3.26) 1.60, (0.90, 2.85) 3.31, (2.06, 5.30) 2.68, (1.60, 4.49)
Educational Status p <0.0001   p <0.0001   p <0.0001  
 Low education 1 1 1
 High education 5.98 (4.20, 8.50) 1.98 (1.46, 2.67) 3.25 (2.49, 4.23)
Wealth status p <0.0001   p <0.0001   p <0.0001  
Low 1 1 1
Middle 2.07 (1.38, 3.09) 0.74 (0.52, 1.05) 1.15 (0.85, 1.55)
High 8.26 (5.43, 12.56) 2.42 (1.67, 3.52) 4.22 (3.01, 5.90)
Current Smoker p = 0.63 p = 0.92 p =0.82
No 1 1 1
Yes 0.89 (0.56, 1.41) 1.02 (0.65, 1.62) 0.96 (0.64, 1.42)