# Table 4 Basic Characteristics of all the participants by BMI status showing Odds Ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI)

Factors Obesity vs Normal weight Overweight vs Normal weight Overweight/obese vs Normal weight
Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
OR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI)
Sex p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 P = 0.005 p <0.0001 P < 0.0001
Male 1 1 1 1 1 1
Female 3.71 (2.73, 5.04) 2.57 (1.75, 3.78) 2.00 (1.49, 2.68) 1.59 (1.13,2.24) 2.71 (2.11, 3.50) 2.10 (1.56, 2.84)
Age Group, Years p <0.0001 P < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 P = 0.001 p <0.0001 p < 0.0001
18–34 1 1 1 1 1 1
35–44 2.99 (2.04, 4.38) 1.29 (0.79, 2.11) 2.07 (1.42, 3.01) 1.24 (0.81,1.90) 2.48 (1.80, 3.41) 1.24 (0.85, 1.81)
> = 45 4.97 (3.41, 7.25) 1.82 (1.10, 3.00) 3.03 (2.09, 4.39) 1.67 (1.07, 2.60) 3.89 (2.82, 5.37) 1.61 (1.08, 2.41)
Marital Status p = 0.009 p = 0.55 p < 0.0001 p =0.03 p =0.0001 p =0.05
- Never Married 1 1 1 1 1 1
- Married/Living together 1.69 (1.17, 2.45) 1.56 (0.95, 2.56) 2.13 (1.43, 3.19) 1.71 (1.06, 2.77) 1.88 (1.36, 2.59) 1.70 (1.13, 2.56)
Separated/divorced/widowed/ other 2.01 (1.18, 3.42) 1.40 (0.68, 2.88) 2.81 (1.62, 4.88) 2.03 (1.04, 3.94) 2.35 (1.48, 3.74) 1.81 (0.99, 3.29)
Country site p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p <0.0001 P < 0.0001 p <0.0001 P < 0.0001
Rural Uganda 1 1 1 1 1 1
Peri-urban Uganda 1.28 (0.68, 2.42) 1.30 (0.64, 2.61) 0.58 (0.37, 0.90) 0.66 (0.40, 1.07) 0.73 (0.49, 1.09) 0.75 (0.48, 1.18)
Nigeria 4.99 (2.46, 10.10) 5.24 (2.41, 11.43) 1.62 (0.93, 2.81) 1.74 (0.94, 3.22) 2.33 (1.42, 3.85) 2.56 (1.45, 4.53)
South Africa 18.94 (10.41, 34.44)) 14.10 (7.51,26.49) 2.86 (1.84, 4.45) 2.42 (1.49, 3.94) 6.29 (4.20, 9.42 4.97 (3.18, 7.78)
Tanzania 8.38 (4.32, 16.23) 6.69 (3.32, 13.48) 1.93 (1.15, 3.26) 1.60, (0.90, 2.85) 3.31, (2.06, 5.30) 2.68, (1.60, 4.49)
Educational Status p <0.0001   p <0.0001   p <0.0001
Low education 1 1 1
High education 5.98 (4.20, 8.50) 1.98 (1.46, 2.67) 3.25 (2.49, 4.23)
Wealth status p <0.0001   p <0.0001   p <0.0001
Low 1 1 1
Middle 2.07 (1.38, 3.09) 0.74 (0.52, 1.05) 1.15 (0.85, 1.55)
High 8.26 (5.43, 12.56) 2.42 (1.67, 3.52) 4.22 (3.01, 5.90)
Current Smoker p = 0.63 p = 0.92 p =0.82
No 1 1 1
Yes 0.89 (0.56, 1.41) 1.02 (0.65, 1.62) 0.96 (0.64, 1.42)