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Table 1 Seroprevalence of anti-HCMV IgG antibodies in relation to sociodemographic characteristics of the study population

From: Sociodemographic factors associated with IgG and IgM seroprevalence for human cytomegalovirus infection in adult populations of Pakistan: a seroprevalence survey

Characteristic Total IgG+ IgG OR (95 % CI) p*
N = 1000 n = 932 n = 68
% (%) (%)
Sampling location      <0.001
 Private hospital 14.9 125 (13.4) 24 (35.3) 1.0  
 Government hospital 63.4 602 (64.6) 32 (47.1) 3.61 (1.98–6.57)  
 Community A 3.6 31 (3.3) 5 (7.4) 0.20 (0.04–0.92)  
 Community B 18.1 174 (18.7) 7 (10.3) 4.77 (1.88–12.60)  
Gender      0.001
 Female 53.7 514 (55.2) 23 (33.8) 2.41 (1.39–4.18)  
 Male 46.3 418 (44.8) 45 (66.2) 1.0  
Age (years)a      0.002
  ≤ 25 26.1 232 (24.9) 28 (41.2) 1.0  
 26–34 24.3 222 (23.8) 20 (29.4) 1.34 (0.71–2.55)  
 35–45 27.7 268 (28.8) 8 (11.8) 4.04 (1.72–9.84)  
  > 45 22.0 207 (22.2) 12 (17.6) 2.08 (0.99–4.46)  
Marital status      0.008
 Married 76.5 722 (77.5) 43 (63.2) 2.0 (1.16–3.45)  
 Unmarried 23.5 210 (22.5) 25 (36.8) 1.0  
Ethnicity      0.34
 Sindhi 30.1 281 (30.2) 20 (29.4) 0.49 (0.14–1.56)  
 Baloch 9.9 91 (9.8) 8 (11.8) 0.40 (0.10–1.51)  
 Punjabi 11.9 115 (12.3) 4 (5.9) 1.0  
 Pakhtoon 14.1 131 (14.1) 10 (14.7) 0.46 (0.12–1.64)  
 Urdu speaking 19.9 180 (19.3) 19 (27.9) 0.33 (0.09–1.06)  
 Other 14.1 134 (14.4) 7 (10.3) 0.67 (0.16–2.61)  
Education level (years of schooling)      <0.001
 0 36.8 356 (38.2) 12 (17.6) 4.52 (2.20–9.45)  
 1–6 13.8 133 (14.3) 5 (7.4) 4.06 (1.47–12.11)  
 7–10 23.7 220 (23.6) 17 (25.0) 1.97 (1.03–3.80)  
  > 10 25.7 223 (23.9) 34 (50.0) 1.0  
Household size (no. of persons)a      0.98
 1–3 9.1 83 (9.0) 7 (10.3) 1.0  
 4–6 31.2 289 (31.3) 20 (29.4) 1.22 (0.45–3.18)  
 7–10 36.9 340 (36.9) 25 (36.8) 1.04 (0.51–2.07)  
  > 10 22.8 210 (22.8) 16 (23.5) 1.11 (0.40–2.99)  
Household income (USD)      0.008
  ≤ 70 30.6 291 (31.2) 15 (22.1) 2.58 (1.28–5.23)  
 71–100 21.1 198 (21.2) 13 (19.1) 2.03 (0.97–4.28)  
 101–200 25.3 240 (25.8) 13 (19.1) 2.46 (1.18–5.17)  
  > 200 23.0 203 (21.8) 27 (39.7) 1.0  
House construction materiala      0.79
 Concrete bricks only 66.6 619 (66.5) 46 (67.6) 1.0  
 Mud and concrete mix 14.4 136 (14.6) 8 (11.8) 1.26 (0.56–2.97)  
 Straw/wood/mud 19.0 176 (18.9) 14 (20.6) 0.93 (0.48–1.83)  
Crowding indexa      0.003
  ≤ 2 28.9 253 (27.4) 33 (48.5) 1.0  
  > 2–3 20.9 197 (21.4) 10 (14.7) 2.57 (1.18–5.72)  
  > 3–5 27.5 258 (28.0) 14 (20.6) 2.40 (1.21–4.84)  
  > 5 22.7 213 (23.1) 11 (16.2) 2.53 (1.19–5.45)  
  1. The adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated
  2. USD U.S. dollar, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. *Comparisons between HCMV-IgG seroprevalence and sociodemographic characteristics were performed by Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test (p < 0.05)
  4. aThe total sample size (n) for these variables may not equal the total number of samples (N = 1000) because information was unavailable