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Table 3 Predictors of BMI among overweight and obese 16–35 year olds (with normal BMI as the reference group)

From: Coming of age, becoming obese: a cross-sectional analysis of obesity among adolescents and young adults in Malaysia

Characteristic Unadjusted models Base model: with all predictors Reduced model: with selected predictors
RRR [95 % CI] RRR [95 % CI] RRR [95 % CI]
Over weight
Age (years) 1.07*** 1.0566 1.0818 1.03*** 1.0111 1.0492 1.05*** 1.0328 1.0650
 Sex
  Male 1.00    1.00      
  Female 0.99 0.8566 1.1369 0.90 0.7585 1.0661    
 Ethnicity
  Malay 1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Indian 1.16 0.9079 1.4724 1.11 0.8602 1.4413 1.07 0.8300 1.3821
  Chinese 0.74*** 0.5966 0.9068 0.86 0.6876 1.0719 0.82 0.6563 1.0141
  Other 0.53* 0.2983 0.9539 0.37*** 0.1884 0.7297 0.45** 0.2516 0.8158
  Orang asli 2.32*** 1.5143 3.5395 1.70* 1.0516 2.7548 1.86** 1.1983 2.9008
 Marital status
  Married 1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Not married 0.45*** 0.3883 0.5214 0.67*** 0.5408 0.8277 0.68*** 0.5584 0.8160
Eating out 0.98*** 0.9706 0.9939 0.98** 0.9703 0.9959 0.99 0.9771 1.0016
 Education
  None 1.00    1.00      
  Other 1.78 0.3877 8.1702 3.33 0.6942 15.9796    
  Primary 3.66 0.8043 16.6475 3.19 0.6815 14.9765    
  Secondary 2.43 0.5475 10.8000 2.72 0.5919 12.5298    
  Tertiary 2.61 0.5810 11.7014 3.32 0.7129 15.5032    
 Employment
  Full-time 1.00    1.00      
  Student 0.45*** 0.3630 0.5491 0.66*** 0.5004 0.8783    
  House-wife/-husband 1.18 0.9483 1.4623 0.93 0.7132 1.2116    
  Not working 0.54*** 0.4051 0.7112 0.69* 0.5053 0.9412    
  Casual jobs 1.32 0.6372 2.7140 1.15 0.5360 2.4560    
  Part-time 1.02 0.7276 1.4344 1.14 0.8073 1.6180    
  Pensioner 0.00 0.0000 . 0.00 0.0000 .    
  Self employed 1.24 0.9779 1.5744 1.24 0.9609 1.5998    
  Too young 0.41*** 0.2195 0.7691 0.66 0.3321 1.2981    
Total physical activity 1.00 0.9992 1.0013 1.00 0.9988 1.0012    
Obese
Age (years) 1.08*** 1.0640 1.0939 1.06*** 1.0348 1.0794 1.06*** 1.0406 1.0785
 Sex
  Male 1.00    1.00      
  Female 1.52*** 1.2847 1.8020 1.23* 1.0023 1.5055    
 Ethnicity
  Malay 1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Indian 1.26 0.9627 1.6460 1.18 0.8917 1.5691 1.21 0.9123 1.5930
  Chinese 0.46*** 0.3485 0.6188 0.55*** 0.4054 0.7349 0.56*** 0.4173 0.7499
  Other 0.16*** 0.0514 0.5230 0.11*** 0.0350 0.3757 0.14*** 0.0442 0.4547
  Orang asli 2.29*** 1.4289 3.6774 1.34 0.7833 2.2757 1.81* 1.1112 2.9555
 Marital status
  Married 1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Not married 0.43*** 0.3661 0.5155 0.85 0.6587 1.0936 0.73*** 0.5830 0.9045
Eating out 0.96*** 0.9451 0.9746 0.98*** 0.9595 0.9912 0.97*** 0.9538 0.9846
 Education
  None 1.00    1.00      
  Other 0.46 0.1542 1.3978 1.07 0.3285 3.5024    
  Primary 1.21 0.4146 3.5511 1.32 0.4249 4.1195    
  Secondary 0.66 0.2355 1.8690 0.89 0.2930 2.6764    
  Tertiary 0.53 0.1828 1.5295 0.84 0.2682 2.6047    
Employment
  Full-time 1.00    1.00      
  Student 0.47*** 0.3641 0.6126 0.83 0.5893 1.1827    
  House-wife/-husband 2.08*** 1.6485 2.6299 1.43* 1.0666 1.9125    
  Not working 1.11 0.8342 1.4676 1.33 0.9659 1.8338    
  Casual jobs 0.79 0.2687 2.3427 0.78 0.2592 2.3545    
  Part-time 1.08 0.7102 1.6296 1.13 0.7373 1.7291    
  Pensioner 0.00 0.0000 . 0.00 0.0000 .    
  Self employed 1.15 0.8492 1.5505 1.12 0.8113 1.5347    
  Too young 0.81 0.4366 1.4870 1.38 0.7004 2.7194    
Total physical activity 1.00 0.9990 1.0015 1.00 0.9996 1.0023    
  1. RRR relative risk ratio, CI confidence interval; * p<0.05; ** p<0.01; ***p<0.001