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Table 4 Characteristics of water quality intervention studies

From: Type and extent of trans-disciplinary co-operation to improve food security, health and household environment in low and middle income countries: systematic review

Study (Author and publication year) Country Participants (sample size, age, setting) Study design Intervention details (I = Intervention and C = Control) Duration of intervention (months) Outcome measured
Boisson S, et al. 2010 Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) 240 household (1,144 participants mean age 39.1 years) RCT I: Lifestraw family filter (n = 120 households, 546 participants)
C: Placebo filter (n = 120 households, 598participants)
15 Microbial contamination, health
Boisson S, et al. 2009 Ethiopia 313 households, 6 months and over, household RCT I: Life straw personal filter to be used for ingesting of untreated water both at home and away from home (n = 155)
C: Usual practice (n = 158)
5 Microbial contamination, health
Boisson S, et al. 2013 India 2,163 household (2,986 children <5 years) RCT I: NaDC tabletsb (n = 1080)
C: Placebo (n = 1083)
12 Microbial contamination, health
Brown J et al. 2008 Cambodia 180 households, all age participants RCT I: One of following: Ceramic water purifier (CWP) (n = 60) and Iron-rich ceramic water purifier (CWP-fe) (n = 60)
C: Usual practice (n = 60)
5.5 Microbial contamination, health
Clasen T.F et al. 2006 Bolivia 60 households (317 individuals), all age, household RCT I: Water purification filter (20 households; 210 individuals)
C: Usual practice (40 households; 107 individuals)
5 Microbial contamination, health
Clasen T, et al. 2007 Bangladesh 100 households, 555 participants of any age group RCT I: 67-mg NADCC tabletsb designed to treat 20–25 L of water (n= 50 households; 279 participants)
C: Placebo consisting of tablets of the same colour, size and packaging (n = 50 households, 276 participants)
4 Microbial contamination
Clasen T, et al. 2005 Columbia 140 household RCT I: Ceramic Water filter (n = 76 households, 415 participants)
C: Usual practice (n = 64 households, 265 participants)
6 Microbial contamination, health
Christen A, et al. 2009 Bolivia 2 household (27 proxy household for air quality) CSS (pre and post) I: Water disinfection stove (WADIS) 6 Water quality, Microbial contamination, air quality, health
Conroy R, et al. 1996 Kenya 206 children age 5–16 years, household RCT I: SODIS bottle (n = 108)
C: Only water bottle and suggested to use indoor (n = 98)
3 Health
Crump JA, et al. 2005 Kenya 605 households (6650 participants) Cluster- RCT I1: Flocculant- disinfectant intervention (n = 201 households,2124 participants)
I2: Sodium hypochlorite intervention (n = 203 households, 2249 participants)
C: Usual practice (n = 201 households, 2277 participants)
4 (20 weeks) Microbial contamination, health
Davis J, et al. 2011 Tanzania 248 households, participants aged <5 years Experimental field study I: One of following 4 intervention: 1) Information on strategies to reduce water and sanitation related illness (n = 79) 2) Information as per 1 plus water quality tests (n = 84) 3) Information as per 1 plus hand-rinse test results (n = 90) 4) information as per 1 plus water and hand rinse results (n = 81) 4 Microbial contamination, hygiene and sanitation
Du Preez M, et al. 2008 Zimbabwe and South Africa 115 households, participants aged between 12 to 24 months RCT I: Ceramic water filter (n = 60)
C: In-house water filter (n = 58)
6 Health
Du Preez M, et al. 2010 South Africa 649 households, 6 months to 5 years, household RCT I: SODISa bottles to be used to provide drinking water at all times and as much as possible drink directly from the bottle (n = 297)
C: Usual practice (n = 267)
12 Microbial contamination, health
Fabiszewski de Aceituno AM, et al. 2012 Honduras 195 participants aged <5 years, household RCT I: Plastic Bio sand filters, a narrow mouth gallon (20 L), water jug and general education on hygiene and sanitation (n = 90 households, 532 participants)
C : Usual practice (n = 86 households, 488 participants)
10 Microbial contamination, health
Graf J, et al. 2010 Cameroon 2,193 households, participants aged <5 years CSS (pre and post) I: SODIS bottles for water purification 10 Health
Garrett V, et al. 2008 Kenya 555 households (960 children aged <5 years) RCT I: Sodium hypochlorite water disinfection solution and storage containers and hygiene and sanitation education (n = 366)
C: Usual practice (n = 189)
2 (8 weeks) Microbial contamination, health
Habib MA, et al. 2013 Pakistan 18,244, participants, household Cluster-RCT I: Diarrhoea pack (two packets of low osmolality ORS, one strip of Zinc tablets, two packets of water purification sachet and a leaflet with educational materials) (n = 9,581)
C: Usual practice (n = 8,663)
12 Health
Henry FJ et al. 1990 Bangladesh 44 children, 6–23 months, community Intervention Study I: Latrine construction and hygiene education (n = 41)
C: Usual practice (n = 43)
6 Health
Henry FJ et al. 1990 Bangladesh 92 participants, 6–18 months, household Intervention study I: Hand pumps, latrine construction and hygiene education (44)
C: Hand pumps only (48)
6 Health
Lindquist ED, et. al; 2014 Bolivia 1,198 participants, household Cluster-RCT I1: A household level hollow fiber filter (n = 330)
I2: Education (behaviour change communication) (n = 302)
I3: Filter and education (n = 285)
C: Life skills and attitudes and family responsibility message (n = 279)
3 Health
Luby,AP, et al. 2006 Pakistan 1340 households, all age participants RCT I: One of following intervention: 1) diluted bleach and a water vessel provided (n = 265) 2) soap and hand washing promotion provided (n = 262) 3) flocculent disinfectant water treatment and water vessel provided (n = 262) 4) flocculent-disinfection, soap and hand washing promotion provided (n = 266)
C: Usual practice (n = 282)
9 Health
Mausezahi D et al. 2009 Bolivia 484 households, participants aged <5 years RCT I: SODIS bottles (n = 255 households; 376 children)
C: Usual practice (n = 200 households; 349 children)
14 Health
Opryszko MC et al. 2010 Afghanistan 1514 households, all age participants, household RCT I: Multiple intervention; liquid chlorine with a water vessel (299 households), hygiene education (233 households), improved tube well (308 households) and combination of all (261 households)
C: Usual practice (n = 292)
17 Diarrhoeal incidence
Quick RE et al. 1996 Bolivia 42 household Intervention study (pre and post) I1: 20 l narrow mouthed water vessel and the calcium hypochlorite solution (n = 15)
I2: 20 l narrow mouthed water vessel (n = 15)
C: Usual practice (n = 12)
9 weeks Microbial contamination,
Quick RE, et al. 1998 Bolivia 127 households RCT I: Water disinfection solution and storage vessels (n = 64 households, 400 individuals)
C: Usual practice (n = 63 households, 391 individuals)
8 Microbial contamination, health
Ram PK, et al. 2007 Madagascar 242 households, participants aged 0–90 year Intervention study I: Water chlorination tablet and Jerrycan for water storage NR Education and self-reported compliance
Rangel JM, et al. 2003 Guatemala 100 households RCT I1: Chlorine bleach and 20 l narrow mouthed water vessel (n = 20)
I2: Combined product c in narrow mouthed water vessel (n = 20)
I3: Combined product c with customised vessel (n = 20)
I4: Combined product c in traditional vessel (n = 20)
C: Traditional vessel (n = 20)
1 (4 weeks) Microbial contamination, health
Rose A et al. 2006 India 200 children, participants aged <5 years, household RCT I: SODIS bottles for water purification plus diarrhoea prevention and treatment education (n = 100)
C: Diarrhoeal prevention and treatment education only (n = 100)
6 Health
Rosa G, et al. 2014 Rwanda 566 households RCT I: Life straw family 2.0 filter and one improved stove (Eco Zoom Dura) (n = 285)
C: Usual practice (n = 281)
5 Water quality, air quality
Stauber CE, et al. 2009 Dominican Republic 187 households, all aged participants RCT I: Plastic Bio Sand filters (n = 81 households, 447 participants)
C : Usual practice (n = 86 households, 460 participants)
10 Microbial contamination, health
Stauber CE, et al. 2011 Cambodia 189 households, participants aged <5 years RCT I: Plastic Bio Sand filters (n = 90 households, 546 participants)
C : Usual practice (n = 99 households, 501 participants)
6 Microbial contamination, health
Tiwari SS, et al. 2009 Kenya 59 household RCT I: Concrete Bio sand Filter and instruction on filter use (n = 30)
C: Usual practice (n = 29)
6 Microbial contamination, health
  1. RCT randomised control trial, CSS cross sectional study, NR not reported, aSODIS: Solar Disinfection method, bNADCC tablets: Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate tablets, c Combined product: a product incorporating precipitation, coagulation, flocculation and chlorination technology