Skip to main content

Table 5 The associations between defending behaviors and mental health indicators stratified by bullying roles

From: Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study

Social anxiety score
  1. Bullies (n = 256) 2. Victims (n = 218) 3. Bully-victims (n = 106) 4. Bystanders (n = 2292)
Beta STB S.D. P-value Beta STB S.D. P-value Beta STB S.D. P-value Beta STB S.D. P-value
Defending behaviors −0.02 −0.04 0.05 0.654 0.05 0.08 0.08 0.554 0.02 0.03 0.11 0.888 0.05 0.09 0.02 0.005
Depressive symptoms score
  1. Bullies (n = 256) 2. Victims (n = 218) 3. Bully-victims (n = 106) 4. Bystanders (n = 2292)
Beta STB S.D. P-value Beta STB S.D. P-value Beta STB S.D. P-value Beta STB S.D. P-value
Defending behaviors 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.578 0.12 0.23 0.04 0.011 0.02 0.04 0.09 0.838 0.04 0.07 0.01 0.005
  1. Note 1: *: p < .05, **: p < .01, ***: p < .001
  2. Note 2: All models were adjusted for sex, grade, aggressive personality, communication skills, school attachment, parents’ marital status, parents’ education level, family activity level, family support level, family conflict level, and punishment level