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Table 3 Associations between social anxiety, defending behaviors, and bullying roles (N = 2,872)

From: Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study

  Social anxiety score (Range: 1–3)
Bivariate analysis Multivariate regression I Multivariate regression II
Mean SD Test Beta STB SD p-value Beta STB SD p-value
Bullying role:
 Bullies (B) 1.68 0.04 F = 20.80 0.01 0.00 0.23 0.98 −0.00 −0.00 0.23 0.9898
 Victims (V) 1.89 0.04 (P = 0.018) 1.73 0.13 0.26 <.0001 1.67 0.13 0.26 <.0001
 Bully-victims (BV) 1.90 0.07 Post-hoc test 1.58 0.08 0.46 <.0001 1.54 0.08 0.45 0.0009
 Bystanders (BY) 1.59 0.01 V, BV > B > B ref ref
Defending behaviors score r = 0.053 P = 0.0041 - 0.27 0.07 0.13 0.02
  1. Note 1: Means were weighted by sampling probabilities
  2. Note 2: The two multivariate regression models were adjusted for sex, grade, aggressive personality, communication skills, school attachment, parents’ marital status, parents’ education level, family activity level, family support level, family conflict level, and punishment level. Model I examined the relationship between bullying roles and social anxiety. Model II examined the relationship between bullying roles and social anxiety after adjusting for defending behaviors