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Table 1 Participant characteristics according to tertile (T) of Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) (n = 4908)a

From: Diet quality is associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults: a cross sectional study

  Overall Dietary Guideline Index P-trendb
T1 T2 T3
Men
n 2346 865 755 726 -
 DGI score 79.2 ± 0.47 64.1 ± 0.38 80.5 ± 0.21 95.7 ± 0.40 <0.001
 Age, y 45.2 ± 0.24 43.2 ± 0.70 46.6 ± 0.81 46.3 ± 0.87 0.018
 Education, %
  Low 19.9 24.6 18.4 15.8 <0.001
  Medium 54.1 56.2 56.2 49.4
  High 26.0 19.2 25.4 34.9
 Smoking, %
  Current smoker 18.8 28.6 14.9 11.2 <0.001
  Ex-smoker 34.9 32.4 39.0 33.6
  Never smoked 46.3 39.0 46.2 55.2
 Physical activity
  Sedentary behavior, min/d 363 ± 6.3 375 ± 8.5 343 ± 9.7 370 ± 10.9 0.60
  Meet recommendations, % 47.2 40.4 47.5 55.0 <0.001
 BMI, kg/m2 c 27.7 ± 0.15 27.9 ± 0.30 27.4 ± 0.26 27.6 ± 0.27 0.53
 BMI category, %
  Underweight/normal weight 30.8 30.2 31.2 31.1 0.25
  Overweight 42.9 39.5 44.8 44.9
  Obese 26.4 30.3 24.1 24.0
 Waist circumference, cmc 97.7 ± 0.38 98.6 ± 0.73 97.1 ± 0.64 97.1 ± 0.66 0.22
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 125.5 ± 0.59 126.5 ± 1.16 125.6 ± 0.73 124.4 ± 0.78 0.14
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 77.1 ± 0.31 77.6 ± 0.59 77.0 ± 0.55 76.6 ± 0.48 0.15
Women
n 2562 757 885 920 -
 DGI score 80.9 ± 0.48 64.7 ± 0.48 80.4 ± 0.17 94.6 ± 0.29 <0.001
 Age, y 46.9 ± 0.30 42.2 ± 0.79 47.0 ± 0.63 50.5 ± 0.73 <0.001
 Education, %
  Low 27.2 27.1 25.6 28.8 0.038
  Medium 43.0 47.4 45.4 37.1
  High 29.8 25.5 29.1 34.0
 Smoking, %
  Current smoker 14.4 21.9 13.5 9.1 <0.001
  Ex-smoker 28.0 27.7 27.9 28.2
  Never smoked 57.7 50.4 58.6 62.7
 Physical activity
  Sedentary behavior, min/d 313 ± 4.0 336 ± 10.4 312 ± 8.3 296 ± 6.7 0.007
  Meet recommendations, % 43.9 36.8 44.2 49.3 0.004
 BMI, kg/m2 c 27.0 ± 0.20 27.2 ± 0.40 26.7 ± 0.27 27.1 ± 0.33 0.86
 BMI category, %
  Underweight/normal weight 44.8 43.3 44.8 46.0 0.84
  Overweight 29.6 31.2 30.1 27.7
  Obese 25.7 25.6 25.1 26.4
 Waist circumference, cmc 87.3 ± 0.47 87.6 ± 0.94 86.9 ± 0.72 87.4 ± 0.72 0.96
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 119.5 ± 0.46 116.9 ± 0.99 120.1 ± 0.85 121.1 ± 0.95 0.007
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 76.0 ± 0.32 75.7 ± 0.68 76.0 ± 0.54 76.2 ± 0.54 0.58
  1. a Values represent means ± SD or percentages
  2. b Linear regression and chi squared tests were used to test for significant differences between groups in continuous and categorical variables, respectively
  3. c Data were log-transformed prior to analyses; values represent the geometric mean ± SD