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Table 4 Within and between city differences in dog walker’s neighborhood perceptions by gender

From: The association between dog walking, physical activity and owner’s perceptions of safety: cross-sectional evidence from the US and Australia

  All Dog walkers (n = 623) San Diego Dog walkers (n = 142) Portland Dog walkers (n = 123) Nashville Dog walkers (n = 155) Perth Dog walkers (n = 203) Significant between city differences (All dog walkers)2 Significant between city differences (Female dog walkers)3
  Overall % OR1 (95 % CI) Overall % OR1 (95 % CI) Overall % OR1 (95 % CI) Overall % OR1 (95 % CI) Overall % OR1 (95 % CI) p-value p-value
Feel safer walking with dog 58.6 2.49 (1.76,3.53) 57.7 2.54 (1.09,5.93) 58.5 4.17 (1.57,11.09) 58.7 0.97 (0.45,2.07) 59.1 6.07 (2.99,12.33) 0.971 0.277
Got to know neighborhood through walking dog 77.4 0.74 (0.49,1.11) 83.1 0.65 (0.20, 2.09) 81.3 1.60 (0.49,5.24) 71.0 0.69 (0.29,1.66) 75.9 0.50 (0.23,1.08) 0.010 PE > NV 0.024 PE < PL
  1. Bolded text = p ≤ 0.05; SD San Diego, PL Portland, NV Nashville, PE Perth, Overall percentages are unadjusted
  2. 1Models examining gender differences adjusted for age group, highest education level, ethnicity (US); country of birth (Aust), number of children in household, housing type, time lived in neighborhood. Reference group = Males
  3. 2Reference group = Perth
  4. 3Between city differences for FEMALE dog walkers only; Reference group = Perth