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Table 2 Studies on the associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviour with health outcomes in oil-producing countries of the Arabian Peninsula (Behavioural epidemiology framework, Phase 1)

From: A systematic review of physical activity and sedentary behaviour research in the oil-producing countries of the Arabian Peninsula

Lead author Country Study design Health Outcomes Association
Physical Activity (type) Sedentary Behaviour (type)
Prospective Studies
 Abdi S [50], United Arab Emirates Diet and physical activity intervention (6 months) HbA1c −physical activity intervention)  
35 adults aged 18–60 years with diabetes
 Al Saif A [45], Saudi Arabia Aerobic and anaerobic intervention (3 months) BMI −(Aerobic intervention)  
Blood Pressure  
40 obese adults aged 18–25 years Heart Rate
Maximum oxygen consumption + (Aerobic intervention)
Maximum voluntary ventilation + (Aerobic and anaerobic interventions)
 Al-Eisa E [148], Saudi Arabia Exercise intervention (8 weeks) Serum cotinine −(Exercise intervention for both smokers and non-smokers)  
150 men aged 18–55 years Serum cortisol
Testosterone
Mood and physical symptoms scale −(Exercise intervention for smokers)
Free radicals + (Exercise intervention for both smokers and non-smokers)
 Al-Eisa E [64], Saudi Arabia Exercise intervention (3 weeks) Insomnia −(exercise intervention)  
76 women university students aged 19–25 years Depression
Attention span + (Exercise intervention)
 Alghadir AH [53], Saudi Arabia Exercise intervention (12 weeks) BMI −(Exercise intervention)  
100 adults aged 30–60 years Waist-Hip ratio
Serum levels of Copper, Zinc and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase
Osteoporosis T-score
Bone mineral density + (Exercise intervention)
Serum levels of Calcium and Manganese
 Alghadir AH [149], Saudi Arabia Exercise intervention (4 weeks) Salivary cortisol, lactate and testosterone levels + (Exercise intervention)  
16 men students aged 15–25 years
 Al-Ghimlas F [46], Kuwait Exercise intervention (12 weeks) Weight −(Exercise intervention)  
58 adults aged 15+ years BMI
Waist and hip circumferences
Diastolic blood pressure
Resting Heart Rate
HbA1c
LDL cholesterol
Body fat composition
Peak oxygen uptake Muscular strength + (exercise intervention)
 Ardawi MM [37], Saudi Arabia Exercise intervention (8 weeks) Serum bone-formation markers: −(exercise intervention)  
160 women aged 20–49 years
Sclerostin
CTX
IGF-I + (exercise intervention)
OC
PINP N (exercise intervention)
bone-ALP
PTH
NTX
 Kneffel Z [47], Qatar Exercise intervention (10 weeks) Weight −(Exercise intervention)  
36 students aged 18–30 years BMI
Body fat composition
Diastolic blood pressure
 Rouzi AA [40], Saudi Arabia Prospective cohort (6 years) All fragility related fractures −(Total PA)  
707 healthy post-menopausal women aged 50+ years
 Sadiya A [51], United Arab Emirates Lifestyle intervention including physical activity (12 weeks) Weight −(Lifestyle intervention)  
BMI
45 obese or obese with type 2 diabetes adults aged 18–50 years Body fat composition
WC
Fasting blood glucose −(Lifestyle intervention for obese with diabetes)
HbA1c
 Salman RA [38], Saudi Arabia Exercise intervention (11–year) Hypertension −(leisure PA)  
916 normotensive adults with diabetes aged 20+ years
 Tomar RH [52], Saudi Arabia Exercise intervention (12 weeks) Glycemic control + (exercise intervention)  
24 adult men with type 2 diabetes aged 25–55
Cross-sectional: Adults
 Al-Daghri NM [150], Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional Irisin levels + (Total PA for healthy adults  
164 adults aged 30–75 years
N (total PA for adults with diabetes)
 Al-Hamdan NA [48], Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional Hypertension −(Work, transport and leisure PA)  
4758 adults aged 15–64 years
 Al-Mahroos F [36], Bahrain Cross-sectional BMI −(Occupational activity) −(TV time)
2013 adults; men aged 40–59 years and women aged 50–69 years −(Walking and cycling, significant in only men)
 Almajwal MA [91] 4, Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional BMI −(Total PA)  
362 Non-Saudi hospital nurses
 Al-Nozha MM [39] 3, 4, Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional BMI −(Leisure PA)  
17,395 adults aged 30–70 years WC −(Leisure PA)
 Al-Thani [151], Qatar Cross-sectional BMI N (Total PA)  
2496 adults aged 18–64 years WC −(Total PA)
 Ardawi MM [37], Saudi Arabia Cross sectional Serum bone-formation markers: −(Walking or exercising)  
1235 women aged 20–49 years
Sclerostin
FSH
CTX
IGF-I + (Walking or exercising)
OC
PINP
bone-ALP
PTH
E2
NTX
 Al-Kilani H [44], Oman Cross-sectional Total body fat + (exercise and physical activity scores)  
202 school students aged 18–25 years
 Basulaiman M [67], Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional Hypercholesterolemia N (Total PA) N (Total TV/computer time)
10735 adults aged 15+ years
Borderline Hypercholesterolemia N (Total PA) + (Total TV/computer time)
 El-Aty MA [54] 3, Oman Cross-sectional Metabolic Syndrome N (Total PA) + (Total sitting time)
3137 adults aged 18+ years
 El Bcheraoui C [49], Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional Hypertension N (Total PA) N (Total TV/computer time)
10735 adults aged 15+ years
Borderline hypertension + (Total PA−moderate active only) N (Total TV/computer time)
 El-Ghazali S [152], Kuwait Cross-sectional BMI −(Total PA)  
320 college students, 17–26 years
 Hegazy AM [153], Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional study Lower back pain −(Total PA) + Prolonged sitting
174 women, half with lower back pain for 3+ months (20–45 years)
 Mabry RM [16], Oman Cross-sectional The Metabolic Syndrome −(Work PA) + (total sedentary behavior but not significant after further adjustment for PA)
1,335 adults age 20 years and older −(Transport PA)
N (Leisure PA)
 Memish ZA [154], Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional BMI −(Total PA, men only)  
10,735 adults 15+ years
 Moradi-Ladek M [68], Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional Self-rated health   + (TV/computer time)
10,735 adults 15+ years
 Shah SM [35], United Arab Emirates Cross-sectional Hypertension −(Walking 30+ mins/day)  
1,375 South Asian immigrants men 18+ years
 Tuffaha M [55], Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional Vit. D deficiency N (Total PA)  
10,735 adults 15+ years
Prospective: Children and adolescents
 Al Saweer A [155], Bahrain Behavioural intervention including physical activity Weight −(Behavioural intervention)  
  BMI
13 obese adolescents
Cross-Sectional: children and adolescents
 Al Junaibi A [41], UAE Cross-sectional BMI N (time spent walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity) −(computer time in girls)
1,541 students aged 6–19 years
+ (computer time in boys)
N (time spent sitting)
 Al-Haifi AA [156], Kuwait Cross-sectional Sleep duration N (Moderate and/or vigorous activity) −(TV and computer time in boys)
906 school students aged 14–19 years
 Al-Haifi AR [60], Kuwait Cross-sectional BMI −(Moderate and Vigorous PA) N (TV and Computer time)
906 school students aged 14–19 years WC
−(Vigorous PA)
 Al-Hazzaa HM [61], Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional BMI −(vigorous PA) N (TV/screen time)
2,906 school students aged 14–19 years N (Total PA)
WtHR −(vigorous PA)
N (Total PA)
 Al-Hazzaa HM [157], Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional Sleep duration + (Total PA) + (screen time)
2,868 secondary-school students aged 15–19 years
 Al-Kilani H [44], Oman Cross-sectional Total body fat + (exercise and physical activity scores)  
202 school students aged 18–25 years
 Al-Nakeeb Y [57] 3, Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional BMI −(Total PA and walking) + (computer use and total TV and computer time)
1,138 school students aged 15–17 years
 Al-Nuaim AA [58] 3, Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional BMI −(Total PA) + (sitting time)
1,270 school students aged 15–19 years WC −(Total PA) + (sitting time)
 Alqahtani N [62], Saudi Arabia Cross-sectional BMI −(Total PA, boys only) −(Screen time)
370 school children aged 14–19 years
 Alrashidi M [59], Kuwait Cross-section BMI   + (TV time in boys)
635 children aged 11–14 years
 Kerkadi A [42], UAE Cross-sectional BMI N (Total PA) + (TV time)
900 female primary school children aged 5–14 years
 Muhairi SJ [56], UAE Cross-sectional Vitamin D levels + (Total PA)  
315 healthy adolescents aged 15–18 years
 Yousef S [43] 3, UAE Cross-sectional Childhood behavioral problems   + (TV and Video games time)
197 school children aged 5–15 years
  1. BMI body mass index, PA physical activity, ST sitting time, WC waist circumference, WtHr waist to hip ratio, + positive association,−inverse association N non-significant, Super-script number (s)−cross referencing to additional table (s) article in which article is included