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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics in analytic sample (n = 7,831 measured at baseline, 2007/08 and 2 year follow-up, 2009/10), in subjects with poor health outcome (overweight including obesity (OWOB), poor well-being (PWB), and poor health related quality of life (PHRQL)

From: Bidirectional associations between psychosocial well-being and body mass index in European children: longitudinal findings from the IDEFICS study

  Poor health outcome at two time points
  OWOB, n (row %) PWB, n (row %) PHRQOL, n (row %)
Year 2007/2008 (n = 1,419) 2009/2010 (n = 1,790) 2007/2008 (n = 616) 2009/2010 (n = 586) 2007/2008 (n = 2,380) 2009/2010 (n = 2,436)
Background variable
Sex
 Boys 661 (16.7) 873 (22.0) 370 (9.3) 342 (8.6) 1,259 (31.8) 1,291 (32.6)
 Girls 758 (19.6) 917 (23.7) 246 (6.4) 244 (6.3) 1,121 (29.0) 1,145 (29.6)
Age
 Pre-school 2- < 6 years 430 (12.3) 609 (17.4) 262 (7.5) 218 (6.2) 874 (25.0) 879 (25.1)
 School age 6- < 10 years 989 (22.8) 1,181 (27.2) 354 (8.2) 368 (8.5) 1,506 (34.7) 1,557 (35.9)
Parental education (ISCED)
 Level 1 167 (37.8) 183 (44.7) 62 (15.2) 60 (14.7) 173 (39.1) 148 (36.2)
 Level 2 569 (21.4) 701 (27.3) 228 (8.9) 207 (8.1) 883 (33.2) 838 (32.6)
 Level 3 208 (15.5) 283 (20.6) 110 (8.0) 110 (8.0) 373 (27.8) 438 (31.8)
 Level 4 460 (13.9) 594 (17.6) 197 (5.8) 198 (5.9) 918 (27.6) 975 (28.8)
Country
 Belgium 59 (6.1) 95 (9.8) 79 (8.2) 100 (10.3) 205 (21.2) 236 (24.4)
 Cyprus 197 (25.1) 250 (31.9) 84 (10.7) 71 (9.0) 364 (46.4) 333 (42.4)
 Estonia 158 (14.3) 186 (16.9) 79 (7.2) 89 (8.1) 270 (24.5) 356 (32.3)
 Germany 103 (13.2) 125 (16.1) 73 (9.4) 72 (9.3) 191 (24.6) 166 (21.3)
 Hungary 115 (13.0) 174 (19.7) 69 (7.8) 59 (6.7) 457 (51.8) 373 (42.2)
 Italy 471 (42.5) 567 (51.1) 112 (10.1) 90 (8.1) 431 (38.9) 408 (36.8)
 Spain 192 (19.3) 249 (25.0) 94 (9.5) 75 (7.5) 259 (26.0) 360 (36.2)
 Sweden 124 (10.3) 144 (11.9) 26 (2.5) 30 (2.5) 203 (16.8) 204 (16.9)
  1. Footnote: Overweight including obesity (OWOB), defined according to Cole 2012 and poor health related quality of life (PHRQOL) measured by KINDL® and poor well-being (PWB) measured by Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Statistical testing included χ 2-test of differences in the prevalence of a poor health outcome (OWOB, PHRQOL, PWB, at baseline and 2 year follow-up) between categories of each of the 4 background variables (sex, pre-school v. school age, parental education and country). All other associations were statistically significant, except for: sex and prevalent OWOB 2009/2010, p = 0.07 and pre-school versus school age and PWB 2007/2008, p = 0.27