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Table 3 Average direct and indirect costs per patient in six months before interview in 2014-€

From: Economic burden associated with alcohol dependence in a German primary care sample: a bottom-up study

  All patients Non-AD AD Excess costs
N = 1356 male female total male female total male female total
  N = 494 N = 719 N = 1213 N = 95 N = 48 N = 143 N = 589 N = 767 N = 1356
Direct costs
 Inpatient admissions 1a 605.53 (2446.48) 569.42 (2766.16) 543.82 (1997.69) 554.10 (2332.50) 1300.61 (3650.39) 458.99 (1634.33) 1022.95 (3165.99) 731.18 °° −84.80 468.85 °
 Outpatient visits 1a 9.78 (26.73) 8.96 (29.28) 9.08 (20.96) 9.03 (24.59) 17.03 (45.01) 13.50 (21.81) 15.86 (39.06) 8.07 ° 4.41 6.83 °
 GP treatment 2a 219.41 (361.28) 189.23 (321.42) 217.60 (205.77) 206.22 (326.56) 336.03 (800.45) 307.33 (749.01) 326.56 (784.31) 146.81 *+ 89.73 120.34 *+
 Prescribed medication 1a 143.45 (424.96) 157.10 (521.57) 128.18 (344.64) 139.79 (423.90) 203.94 (511.76) 110.77 (152.41) 173.21 (431.74) 46.84 −17.41 33.41
 Home care 1a 26.69 (226.05) 17.72 (121.62) 23.98 (148.22) 21.47 (138.34) 102.80 (661.66) 0.93 (6.14) 69.19 (546.01) 85.08 *+ −23.05 *** 47.73
 Alcohol treatment 1 11.63 (331.60) 0.36 (8.27) 0.0 (0.0) d 0.14 (5.21) 28.18 (115.97) 261.08 (1699.39) 105.01 (978.30) 27.82 °°° 261.08 b 104.87 ***+ °°°
 Total direct costs excluding alcohol treatment 2 1003.68 (2609.80) 940.67 (2931.95) 921.81 (2131.66) 929.38 (2479.83) 1960.41 (3871.48) 891.52 (1913.02) 1607.77 (3400.08) 1019.74 **+ −30.29 678.39 **+
 Total direct costs including alcohol treatment 2 1015.31 (2628.83) 941.03 (2931.86) 921.81 (2131.66) 929.53 (2479.79) 1988.59 (3869.34) 1152.59 (2507.64) 1712.79 (3508.16) 1047.56 ***+ 230.78 783.26 ***+
Indirect costs
 Absenteeism among employed patients 1c 680.11 (1734.23) 584.05 (1542.06) 711.72 (1742.10) 660.41 (1667.00) 932.67 (2377.10) 652.28 (1684.31) 840.17 (2180.79) 348.62 *+ −59.44 179.76 *+
 Unemployment 3 784.20 (2626.86) 732.85 (2570.54) 750.31 (2568.01) 743.29 (2569.20) 1008.96 (2873.82) 1335.22 (3284.69) 1116.60 (3017.16) 276.12 584.91 373.31
 Disability/early retirement 3 1402.00 (3156.06) 1445.88 (3161.93) 1281.27 (3084.52) 1347.43 (3116.68) 1824.21 (3340.81) 1888.23 (3561.13) 1845.33 (3414.18) 378.34 606.96 497.90 *+
 Total indirect costs 1 2866.31 (3833.04) 2762.78 (3772.04) 2743.30 (3788.09) 2751.13 (3782.01) 3765.85 (4062.60) 3875.72 (4152.24) 3802.10 (4092.50) 1003.07 **+ 1132.42 *+ 1050.97 ***+
Total costs
 Total costs excluding alcohol treatment 2 3868.03 (5092.91) 3703.45 (5133.10) 3661.58 (4755.51) 3678.39 (4908.87) 5726.26 (6590.02) 4767.24 (5004.35) 5409.87 (6137.53) 2058.36 **+ 1105.66 **+ 1731.48 ***+
 Total costs including alcohol treatment 2 3879.66 (5114.32) 3703.81 (5133.53) 3661.58 (4755.51) 3678.54 (4909.05) 5754.44 (6591.28) 5028.32 (5491.93) 5514.89 (6265.50) 2050.64 **+ 1366.74 **+ 1836.35 ***+
  1. Note. All presented costs refer to reported and imputed costs and are presented as mean cost per patient with standard deviation in brackets
  2. Significance of excess costs was tested with 1 zero-inflated negative binomial regressions or 2 negative binomial regressions, using alcohol dependence and age as predictors in both count (predicting values >0) and logit (predicting 0, only for zero-inflated negative binomial regressions) model. The following symbols indicate a significant AD predictor: count model * p < .05 ** p < .01 *** p < .001; logit model + or – behind the symbol indicates valence of respective coefficient
  3. 3 significance of excess costs was tested with age-adjusted logistic regressions for unemployment and disability (collapsing sex-specific costs into a single value). The same legend for p-values applies as for negative binomial models
  4. AD Alcohol dependence, GP General practitioner
  5. a excluding all alcohol-specific treatments (medication, inpatient and outpatient treatment, group therapy, (GP) counselling/detoxification)
  6. b only one case with alcohol related treatment costs among female AD patients: χ2-test on contingency table with one cell having 0 counts (female non-AD patients), one cell 1 count (female AD patients): p < .001
  7. c costs of absenteeism according to friction cost method
  8. d no costs despite resource use because one “other alcohol contact” was specified but as the type of contact was not specified, this contact was not included in the cost calculation