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Table 2 Coding scheme for inductive analysis of in-depth interviews (N = 11)

From: Developing effective communication materials on the health effects of climate change for vulnerable groups: a mixed methods study

  Number of mentions
Themes (with associated codes)
Weather is better understood than climate change
 Personal experience/anecdotal evidence 27
 Hot weather/heat: immediate concerns 23
 Pollution: disconnected from weather 6
 General understanding of climate change 1
 Weather conditions (not climate change) 1
Confusion/misinterpretation/unintended consequences
 Dietary advice/advice to lose weight (disconnected from environmental impact, food systems or climate change) 28
 Demonstrated gaps in existing knowledge 27
 Confusion about meaning 16
 Poster offers impractical advice 10
 Advice to engage in harmful activity (e.g., advice to engage in walking/biking on poster about heat effects) 6
Health education strategies
 Activating existing knowledge 18
 Intended audience/who should see 17
 Suggested locations/venues to display 13
 Health vulnerabilities 13
 Not enough information provided 11
 Appeal/liking 8
 Recognition of self as audience 3
 Behavioral modeling 3
 Lack of available education on topic(s) 3
 Poor populations 1
 Shock/fear appeals 1
Attitudes and beliefs about climate change and health
 Explains mechanisms of climate change effects on health 17
 Own perceptions/explanation of systemic issues 17
 Learned something/“aha moment” 11
 Emphasis on health (not climate change) 9
 Individual behaviors 8
 Perceived ignorance of others 7
 Environmental triggers or causes of symptoms 7
 Apathy about climate change/health 5
 Avoidance/denial about climate change/health 4
 Policy/government 4
 Collective action 2
 Clean energy/low pollution 2
 Organization/layout 20
 Appealing elements 14
 Replace cartoons with photos of human faces/figures 9
 Feature humans experiencing health effects 9
 Suggestions for design 9
 Suggestions for content 9
 Color 8
 Cartoons: appropriate for some 8
 Cartoons: off-putting 6
 Health literacy concerns 5
 Cluttered/too much text 1