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Table 5 Socio-demographic characteristics associated with obesity and lack of physical activity, STEPS Survey, Punjab, India, 2014

From: Urban rural differences in diet, physical activity and obesity in India: are we witnessing the great Indian equalisation? Results from a cross-sectional STEPS survey

Characteristics Total N Obesity N (%) OR (95 % CI) P value Less than WHO recommended physical activity N (%) OR (95 % CI) P value
Total 5032 672 (13)    1044 (21)   
Age group in years
 18–44 3279 370 (11) 1.0 Ref 695 (21) 1.0 Ref
 45–69 1753 302 (17) 1.6 (1.4–1.9) <0.001 349 (20) 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.3
Gender
 Male 2326 265 (11) 1.0 Ref 334 (14) 1.0 Ref
 Female 2706 407 (15) 1.4 (1.2–1.6) <0.001 710 (26) 2.1 (1.8–2.4) <0.001
Social group
 SC/ST 1896 198 (10) 1.0 Ref 316 (17) 1.0 Ref
 Other backward caste 683 94 (14) 1.4 (1.1–1.8) 0.02 141 (21) 1.3 (1.1–1.7) 0.006
 General 2363 380 (16) 1.5 (1.3–1.8) <0.001 587 (25) 1.6 (1.4–1.8) <0.001
Educational status
 Illiterate 1191 130 (11) 1.0 Ref 290 (24) 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 0.005
 Upto primary education 1243 185 (15) 1.4 (1.1–1.8) 0.003 234 (19) 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.4
 Upto secondary education 748 106 (14) 1.3 (1.0–1.8) 0.03 148 (20) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.8
 Higher education 1850 251 (14) 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 0.03 372 (20) 1.0 Ref
Occupation
 Government employee 181 34 (18) 3.4 (2.1–5.3) <0.001 30 (17) 1.2 (0.8–1.8) 0.4
 Non-government employee 948 61 (6) 1.0 Ref 135 (14) 1.0 Ref
 Self-employed 1274 163 (13) 2.1 (1.6–2.9) <0.001 193 (15) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 0.6
 Unpaid 2320 373 (16) 2.8 (2.1–3.7) <0.001 609 (26) 2.1 (1.7–2.6) <0.001
 Unemployed 301 41 (13) 2.3 (1.5–3.5) <0.001 77 (26) 2.1 (1.5–2.8) <0.001
  1. SCs and STs are groups of historically disadvantaged people in India recognised by the Constitution of India; OBC is a collective term used by the Constitution of India to classify castes which are socially and educationally disadvantaged although they are considered to be at a less disadvantageous position than SCs and STs; General category is a term used in India to denote a group other than OBCs, SCs and STs and are considered socially, educationally, and economically advanced; social group and marital status are unknown because participants refused to answer these questions; Unpaid includes student, homemaker and retired