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Table 1 Characterization of Bolsa Família Program beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries’ households, according to socioeconomic and demographic variables, region and area of residence. Brazil, 2008–09

From: Impact of the Bolsa Família program on food availability of low-income Brazilian families: a quasi experimental study

  Non-beneficiaries (n = 5,455) Beneficiaries (n = 5,517)  
Characteristics Mean/Frequency SE Mean/Frequency SE p*
Per capita monthly income a(R$) 140.1 1.0 116.3 1.0 <0.001
Years of education of head of household 4.7 0.1 3.5 0.1 <0.001
Number of persons per household 4.4 0.0 5.0 0.0 <0.001
Number of bathrooms per capita 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.0 <0.001
Number of rooms per capita 1.3 0.0 1.1 0.0 <0.001
Presence of running water (%) 80.0 0.7 70.8 0.8 <0.001
Spent on food away from home (%) 15.3 0.6 13.1 0.4 <0.001
Distribution of subjects by sex and age (%)
 Males from 0 to 9 years 13.0 0.3 13.4 0.3 0.013
 Females from 0 to 9 years 11.8 0.3 12.9 0.3 <0.001
 Males from 10 to 15 years 6.8 0.3 10.2 0.3 <0.001
 Females from 10 to 15 years 6.2 0.2 9.3 0.2 <0.001
 Males from 16 to 20 years 4.7 0.2 4.8 0.2 0.368
 Females from 16 to 20 years 5.3 0.2 4.1 0.2 <0.001
 Males from 21 to 65 years 24.0 0.3 19.7 0.2 <0.001
 Female from 21 to 65 years 26.5 0.3 24.7 0.2 <0.001
 Males over 65 years 0.9 0.1 0.4 0.0 <0.001
 Females over 65 years 1.0 0.1 0.5 0.1 <0.001
Region (%)
 North 12.3 0.5 11.3 0.4 <0.001
 Northeast 43.6 0.9 65.7 0.9  
 Southeast 26.6 1.1 15.0 0.9  
 South 9.7 0.6 4.5 0.4  
 Midwest 7.7 0.4 3.5 0.2  
Area (%)
 Urban (capital) 16.4 0.9 9.6 0.6 <0.001
 Urban (other cities) 55.2 1.0 50.3 0.9  
 Rural 28.4 0.8 40.1 0.9  
  1. Excluded households with per capita income above R$ 210.00
  2. SE standard error
  3. *p values for Student T-test for all variables except for region and area, in which the chi-squared test (χ2) with Yates correction was applied
  4. avalues after excluding the benefit in the case of families included in the program