Skip to main content

Table 3 Odds of having metabolic syndrome. Lifecourse multivariate logistic regression models using data from multiple imputations. Men (N = 3395)

From: The early life nutritional environment and early life stress as potential pathways towards the metabolic syndrome in mid-life? A lifecourse analysis using the 1958 British Birth cohort

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
OR CI 95 % p OR CI 95 % p OR CI 95 % p OR CI 95 % p OR CI 95 % p
Mother’s BMI
 Normal 1    1    1    1    1   
 Underweight 1.06 (0.73–1.53) 0.760 1.06 (0.73–1.53) 0.771 1.05 (0.72–1.52) 0.798 1.11 (0.76–1.62) 0.599 1.13 (0.77–1.65) 0.533
 Overweight 1.31 (1.09–1.57) 0.003 1.30 (1.08–1.56) 0.004 1.29 (1.07–1.54) 0.007 1.24 (1.03–1.50) 0.024 1.24 (1.03–1.49) 0.025
 Obese 1.52 (1.07–2.15) 0.018 1.50 (1.06–2.13) 0.022 1.49 (1.05–2.11) 0.026 1.24 (0.86–1.77) 0.244 1.22 (0.85–1.75) 0.282
Mother’s education level
 Left school at 15 or later 1    1    1    1    1   
 Left school before 14 1.38 (1.16–1.65) <0.001 1.38 (1.16–1.65) <0.001 1.36 (1.13–1.63) 0.001 1.34 (1.11–1.61) 0.002 1.34 (1.11–1.61) 0.002
Father’s social class at birth
 Non-manual 1    1    1    1    1   
 Manual 1.25 (1.05–1.49) 0.013 1.25 (1.05–1.49) 0.013 1.23 (1.02–1.47) 0.029 1.17 (0.98–1.41) 0.087 1.18 (0.98–1.42) 0.082
Overcrowding
  > 1.5 personne/chambre 1    1    1    1    1   
  < =1.5 personne/chambre 0.97 (0.77–1.22) 0.775 0.97 (0.77–1.22) 0.789 0.98 (0.77–1.24) 0.842 0.97 (0.76–1.24) 0.805 0.98 (0.77–1.25) 0.882
Birthweight
 Q1 - Low weight 1    1    1    1    1   
 Q2 0.87 (0.70–1.07) 0.187 0.87 (0.71–1.08) 0.204 0.88 (0.71–1.09) 0.229 0.87 (0.70–1.08) 0.207 0.88 (0.71–1.09) 0.239
 Q3 1.02 (0.82–1.27) 0.832 1.03 (0.83–1.28) 0.800 1.04 (0.83–1.29) 0.741 1.01 (0.80–1.26) 0.961 1.01 (0.81–1.27) 0.900
 Q4 - High weight 0.90 (0.72–1.14) 0.390 0.91 (0.73–1.15) 0.430 0.92 (0.73–1.16) 0.471 0.84 (0.66–1.07) 0.151 0.84 (0.66–1.07) 0.161
Mother smoked during pregnancy
 No 1    1    1    1    1   
 Sometimes 1.16 (0.87–1.56) 0.308 1.16 (0.86–1.55) 0.328 1.14 (0.85–1.53) 0.389 1.07 (0.79–1.45) 0.644 1.07 (0.79–1.45) 0.645
 Moderately 1.12 (0.91–1.38) 0.268 1.12 (0.91–1.38) 0.272 1.12 (0.91–1.38) 0.286 1.06 (0.86–1.31) 0.594 1.06 (0.86–1.31) 0.576
 Heavily 0.98 (0.78–1.24) 0.878 0.97 (0.77–1.23) 0.824 0.95 (0.75–1.20) 0.639 0.90 (0.70–1.14) 0.371 0.89 (0.70–1.14) 0.361
Mother’s age at birth
 23 years or less 1    1    1    1    1   
 24 to 27 years 1.09 (0.90–1.33) 0.377 1.09 (0.90–1.33) 0.381 1.10 (0.90–1.35) 0.335 1.11 (0.91–1.36) 0.300 1.12 (0.91–1.37) 0.274
 28 to 31 years 1.01 (0.82–1.26) 0.894 1.02 (0.82–1.27) 0.879 1.04 (0.83–1.30) 0.719 1.05 (0.83–1.31) 0.697 1.04 (0.83–1.31) 0.712
 32 years or more 0.83 (0.66–1.05) 0.119 0.84 (0.66–1.06) 0.134 0.86 (0.68–1.09) 0.209 0.85 (0.66–1.08) 0.179 0.85 (0.66–1.08) 0.182
Breastfed
 No 1    1    1    1    1   
 Yes, for less than 1 month 1.02 (0.83–1.24) 0.877 1.01 (0.83–1.24) 0.887 1.01 (0.83–1.24) 0.913 1.02 (0.83–1.26) 0.852 1.02 (0.83–1.26) 0.863
 Yes, more than 1 month 1.00 (0.84–1.19) 0.993 1.00 (0.84–1.19) 0.995 1.01 (0.84–1.20) 0.934 1.03 (0.86–1.22) 0.781 1.03 (0.86–1.23) 0.780
Parity
 Oldest child 1    1    1    1    1   
 2nd child 0.88 (0.74–1.05) 0.168 0.88 (0.74–1.05) 0.159 0.87 (0.73–1.04) 0.132 0.88 (0.73–1.05) 0.165 0.87 (0.73–1.05) 0.148
 3rd child or more 1.00 (0.82–1.23) 0.965 1.00 (0.81–1.22) 0.973 0.97 (0.78–1.19) 0.747 0.99 (0.80–1.23) 0.946 0.99 (0.80–1.23) 0.924
Gestational age
 38 weeks or less 1    1    1    1    1   
 39 to 41 weeks 1.19 (0.89–1.60) 0.248 1.19 (0.88–1.60) 0.253 1.21 (0.90–1.62) 0.215 1.17 (0.87–1.57) 0.295 1.18 (0.87–1.60) 0.284
 42 weeks or more 1.18 (0.85–1.62) 0.323 1.17 (0.85–1.61) 0.331 1.18 (0.86–1.63) 0.299 1.17 (0.86–1.61) 0.318 1.19 (0.86–1.63) 0.297
Type of delivery
 Vaginal 1    1    1    1    1   
 Emergency caesarean 1.86 (1.06–3.29) 0.032 1.83 (1.03–3.23) 0.038 1.83 (1.03–3.25) 0.038 1.98 (1.11–3.56) 0.022 2.02 (1.13–3.63) 0.018
 Elective caesarean 0.73 (0.37–1.44) 0.359 0.73 (0.37–1.44) 0.361 0.77 (0.39–1.54) 0.465 0.75 (0.37–1.50) 0.412 0.75 (0.37–1.51) 0.423
Adverse childhood experiences
 None     1    1    1    1   
 One     0.93 (0.78–1.12) 0.452 0.91 (0.76–1.09) 0.296 0.91 (0.76–1.10) 0.331 0.91 (0.76–1.10) 0.341
 Two or more     1.19 (0.89–1.59) 0.243 1.12 (0.83–1.50) 0.469 1.18 (0.87–1.59) 0.294 1.16 (0.86–1.57) 0.340
Smoking status at 23
 Non-smoker        1    1    1   
 Former smoker        0.95 (0.78–1.15) 0.575 0.94 (0.77–1.15) 0.541 0.94 (0.77–1.14) 0.521
 Smoker - Less than 10 cig.        1.13 (0.82–1.56) 0.438 1.15 (0.82–1.60) 0.414 1.15 (0.82–1.60) 0.424
 Smoker - 10 to 19 cig.        0.95 (0.74–1.22) 0.685 0.98 (0.76–1.27) 0.883 0.97 (0.76–1.26) 0.839
 Smoker - More than 20 cig.        1.11 (0.88–1.40) 0.378 1.13 (0.90–1.44) 0.295 1.13 (0.89–1.44) 0.304
Alcohol consumption at 23
 Moderate        1    1    1   
 Abstainers        1.00 (0.76–1.31) 0.991 1.02 (0.77–1.35) 0.893 0.99 (0.75–1.31) 0.937
 Heavy drinkers        1.08 (0.91–1.27) 0.368 1.06 (0.90–1.26) 0.497 1.06 (0.89–1.25) 0.521
Physical activity at 23
 Physically active        1    1    1   
 Moderately active        1.13 (0.91–1.40) 0.259 1.13 (0.91–1.40) 0.283 1.12 (0.90–1.40) 0.297
 Inactive        1.25 (1.04–1.52) 0.020 1.25 (1.03–1.53) 0.026 1.25 (1.02–1.52) 0.029
Malaise inventory at 23
 No        1    1    1   
 Yes        1.30 (0.87–1.94) 0.200 1.28 (0.85–1.94) 0.237 1.30 (0.86–1.97) 0.218
Education level at 23
 Passed A levels        1    1    1   
 Passed O levels        1.04 (0.84–1.31) 0.705 0.98 (0.79–1.23) 0.893 1.00 (0.78–1.28) 0.991
 No qualifications        1.12 (0.88–1.43) 0.356 0.99 (0.77–1.26) 0.913 1.00 (0.75–1.34) 0.986
BMI at 23
 Normal           1    1   
 Underweight           0.52 (0.28–0.96) 0.036 0.50 (0.27–0.93) 0.028
 Overweight           2.27 (1.83–2.82) <0.001 2.27 (1.83–2.82) <0.001
 Obese           3.52 (1.92–6.46) <0.001 3.43 (1.87–6.31) <0.001
Occupational social class at 33
 Non-manual              1   
 Manual              0.94 (0.77–1.14) 0.516
Wealth at 33
 Not owner              1   
 Owner - Q1 (Low price)              0.79 (0.62–1.01) 0.062
 Owner - Q2              0.83 (0.65–1.06) 0.131
 Owner - Q3              0.83 (0.64–1.07) 0.145
 Owner - Q4              0.78 (0.60–1.02) 0.066
Marital status at 33
 Couple              1   
 Single              0.96 (0.76–1.20) 0.709
 Divorced or widowed              0.69 (0.47–1.00) 0.050
  1. Model 1 included mother’s pre-pregnancy BMI and all variables measured at or around birth; Model 2: Model 1 + ACE; Model 3: Model 2 + potential mediators measured at 23 years except for participants’ BMI at 23 years; Model 4: Model 3 + participant’s BMI at 23 years; Model 5: Full model