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Table 1 Differences in socio-demographics, transport behavior, perceptions, cycling skills, opinions and psychosocial determinants between the subgroups

From: Differences in environmental preferences towards cycling for transport among adults: a latent class analysis

  Total sample Subgroup 1 Subgroup 2 Subgroup 3 p-value
Segment Sizes (n) n = 1950 n = 232 n = 598 n = 1120  
  100 % 11.9 % 30.7 % 57.4 %  
Socio-demographic characteristics      
 Age (yrs, M ± SD) 54.3 ± 5.6 54.7 ± 5.5 54.1 ± 5.5 54.3 ± 5.7 0.328
 Gender (% women) 56.8 47.8 60.9 56.5 0.003
 SES (% tertiary education) 64.6 68.1 65.2 63.5 0.376
 Area of residence (% village, town or rural) 59.4 54.3 56.7 62.0 0.025
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.2 ± 3.8 25.3 ± 4.2 25.2 ± 3.8 25.1 ± 3.7 0.732
 Cohabitation (%) 86.1 81.9 85.2 87.4 0.064
Transport behavior      
 Motorized transport min/wk (M ± SD) 215.1 ± 252.2 210.9 ± 268.9 201.9 ± 227.6 223.0 ± 260.8 0.258
 Bicycle transport min/wk (M ± SD) 147.7 ± 171.1 178.8 ± 181.3b,c 135.1 ± 147.6a 148.0 ± 179.7a 0.005
 Walk for transport min/wk (M ± SD) 63.5 ± 109.4 81.9 ± 136.3b,c 63.6 ± 110.0a 59.7 ± 102.4a 0.021
 Bicycle leisure time min/wk (M ± SD) 120.3 ± 170.9 132.6 ± 174.2 114.5 ± 166.5 120.8 ± 172.5 0.397
 Number of motorized vehicles (M ± SD) 1.6 ± 1.0 1.3 ± 0.9b,c 1.6 ± 1.0a 1.6 ± 1.0a <0.001
Psychosocial determinants (5-point scale) (M ± SD)     
 Habit (1 item) 3.4 ± 1.5 3.7 ± 1.5b,c 3.3 ± 1.5a 3.3 ± 1.5a 0.009
 Social norm (4 items, α = 0.90) 2.9 ± 1.2 3.0 ± 1.3 2.9 ± 1.2 2.8 ± 1.1 0.178
 Modeling (4 items, α = 0.55) 3.2 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 0.8c 3.2 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 0.8a 0.046
 Social support (4 items, α = 0.81) 2.4 ± 1.0 2.6 ± 1.0 2.4 ± 1.0 2.4 ± 0.9 0.184
 Self-efficacy (11 items, α = 0.92) 3.7 ± 0.9 3.9 ± 0.9b,c 3.7 ± 0.9a 3.7 ± 0.9a 0.006
 Perceived benefits (10 items, α = 0.84) 4.0 ± 0.6 4.1 ± 0.6b,c 4.0 ± 0.6a 4.0 ± 0.6a 0.008
 Perceived barriers (16 items, α = 0.90) 2.4 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.7b,c 2.4 ± 0.7a 2.4 ± 0.7a 0.014
Perceived neighborhood environment (5-point scale) (M ± SD)     
 Amount of single unit houses 3.0 ± 1.5 2.7 ± 1.5b,c 3.0 ± 1.5a 3.0 ± 1.4a 0.003
 Presence of shops in the neighborhood 3.3 ± 1.4 3.4 ± 1.3 3.2 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 1.3 0.168
 Presence of a stop for public transport 4.3 ± 1.0 4.4 ± 1.0 4.3 ± 1.0 4.3 ± 1.0 0.464
 Presence of recreational opportunities (park, pool) 3.3 ± 1.4 3.5 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 1.4 0.134
 Neighborhood traffic safety 3.2 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 1.1 0.168
 Neighborhood safety of crime 2.2 ± 1.0 2.1 ± 1.0 2.1 ± 1.0 2.2 ± 1.0 0.391
 Sufficient cycling infrastructure 3.1 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.1 0.551
 Neighborhood social environment 3.4 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.0 0.559
 Good maintenance of cycling infrastructure 2.9 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.1 0.415
 Presence of vegetation 3.1 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.1 0.939
Cycling skills (5-point scale) (M ± SD) 4.1 ± 0.7 4.1 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 0.7 4.1 ± 0.7 0.963
Cycling concerns (5-point scale) (M ± SD)     
 As a cyclist I feel vulnerable in the traffic 3.7 ± 0.9 3.9 ± 0.9b 3.7 ± 1.0a,c 3.7 ± 0.9b 0.007
 Importance of a fluorescent vest or bicycle helmet 4.9 ± 1.8 4.9 ± 1.8 4.7 ± 1.8c 5.0 ± 1.8b 0.001
Cycling preferences (5-point scale) (M ± SD)     
 I prefer the safest cycling route 3.8 ± 0.9 3.9 ± 1.0b 3.7 ± 0.9a,c 3.9 ± 0.9b 0.002
 I prefer the shortest cycling route 3.2 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 0.9 0.670
 I prefer the most beautiful cycling route 3.6 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 0.9 0.215
 I prefer to cycle alone 3.6 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.0c 3.7 ± 1.0c 3.5 ± 1.1a,b 0.003
  1. asignficiant difference with subgroup 1
  2. bsignificant difference with subgroup 2
  3. csignificant difference with subgroup 3