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Table 3 Summary of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats affecting health disaster risk management and implementation of the regional strategy

From: Strengthening health disaster risk management in Africa: multi-sectoral and people-centred approaches are required in the post-Hyogo Framework of Action era

Strengths Weaknesses
1. Some countries had strong support from a WHO country office, with MOH prioritization of DRM and national disaster management authorities
2. DRM incorporated into national coordination forums and included in national preparedness plans, health development plans, and the United Nations development assistance framework in some countries
3. Presence of health DRM focal points (staff) in some WHO country offices and MOHs;
4. Availability of the tools required for implementation of the health DRM strategy
5. Increased awareness about health DRM among MS
1. Little importance attached to health DRM: lack of political commitment and resource allocation for DRM
2. Multiple plans for specific hazards; most health plans focused on specific disease/epidemics and were not integrated into all-hazard disaster strategies
3. Health DRM planning not guided by outcomes of health risk assessments
4. Lack of a multi-sectoral approach to implementation of health DRM
5. Weak health systems and limited human resources capacity in most MS
6. Disconnect between elements of DRM (e.g., risk awareness, preparedness, surveillance, and response)
7. Limited practical exercises in managing emergency responses
8. Inadequate engagement and mobilization of communities for health DRM implementation
Opportunities Threats
1. Emphasis on health in the SFDRR
2. Availability of climate change adaptation resources, initiatives, and plans that can be leveraged for health DRM
3. Availability of other programs/projects such as the International Health Regulations and the Global Health Security Agenda that support implementation of the health DRM strategy
4. Ongoing emergency reforms in the WHO that consider health DRM
1. Increasing risks and emergencies in the African region and globally that drain health DRM resources
2. Non-compliance with the principles of the health DRM strategy, meaning implementation of health DRM policies and frameworks may not translate into improved capacities and actions
3. Unstable political environment; violence and insecurity in most of the disaster prone countries in the region
4. Inadequate supervision and monitoring of health DRM activities
5. Insufficient funding, resources, and dedicated DRM staff
6. Unavailability of scientific evidence on the nexus between health systems and DRM
  1. DRM disaster risk management, MOH Ministry of Health, MS member states, WHO World Health Organization