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Table 1 Ultrasound measurements

From: Relative abdominal adiposity is associated with chronic low back pain: a preliminary explorative study

Measurement Probe Anatomical location Method used for measurement
msA Linear Just below the xiphoid process of the sternum Minimum distance between the fat-skin barrier and the anterior surface of the linea alba
MppA Linear Just below the surface of the xiphoid process of the sternum (same anatomical position as the minimum subcutaneous adiposity measurement) Maximum distance between the posterior surface of the linea alba and the anterior surface of the peritoneum covering the liver
MsA Linear (A) 2 cm above the umbilicus and (B) 2 cm below the umbilicus Maximum distance between the fat-skin barrier and the anterior surface of the linea alba
MiA Convex 2 cm above the umbilicus (same anatomical position as maximum subcutaneous abdominal adiposity A) Maximum distance between the posterior surface of the rectus abdominis muscle and the anterior wall of the abdominal aorta
MsSI Linear Just above the iliac crest on the mid-axillary line Maximum distance between the fat-skin barrier and the anterior surface of the external oblique muscle
MsL Linear Level of L4/L5 directly over the lumbar erector spinae muscle Maximum distance between the fat-skin barrier and the anterior surface of the lumbar erector spinae muscle
  1. MsA minimum subcutaneous abdominal adiposity, MppA maximum pre-peritoneal abdominal adiposity, MsA maximum subcutaneous abdominal adiposity, MiA maximum intra-abdominal adiposity, MsSI maximum subcutaneous supra-iliac adiposity, MsL maximum subcutaneous lumbar adiposity