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Table 2 Summary of intervention activities to reduce violence and increase condom use among FSWs and their intimate partners

From: Reducing violence and increasing condom use in the intimate partnerships of female sex workers: study protocol for Samvedana Plus, a cluster randomised controlled trial in Karnataka state, south India

Target group Activity type Activity summary
Female sex workers Participatory reflection sessions Workshops will bring together FSWs from the same village, meeting 10–12 times for 2 h, to complete an 8 module curriculum plus structured reflection process. Sessions will be led by a female facilitator.
Development of safety plans Facilitators will help each FSW develop her own safety plan.
Counselling support One-to-one counselling will be provided to individual FSWs by facilitators on a as needed basis.
Linkage to services FSWs will be linked to STI and HIV testing and care services as needed. This will include provision of male and female condoms.
Leadership building 2 FSWs from each village will be selected and trained to hone their leadership skills, to enable FSWs to champion the cause of violence against FSWs.
Violence response through crisis management system FSWs experiencing violence will have access to a 24 h hotline, which will respond within 24 h to provide emotional and legal support and medical care. This system currently exists to respond to violence by non-intimate partners (IPs) (such as police and clients) only. The crisis management system will be strengthened to enable effective support following intimate partner violence.
Intimate Partners One-on-One sessions Male facilitators will meet with IPs of FSWs on a regular basis to discuss issues of violence and condom use, and to motivate the IPs to attend the group sessions.
Group sessions for partners Group reflection sessions for IPs will be conducted during two one day workshops, one month apart. The curriculum consists of 5 modules. It is assumed 30–50 % of IPs will attend.
Training of Champions It is hoped that some IPs will change because of the intervention and 15 such men will be selected and trained further as local champion’s for violence-free relationships.
Linkage to services IPs will be referred to STI and HIV testing and care services as needed. Condoms will also be distributed regularly by the facilitators.
Couples Couples events Events will be organised for FSWs and their IPs once every 3 months. These events will celebrate loving and responsible relationships, provide a space for couples to meet other couples and enjoy time with their partners.
Couple counselling Counselling will be provided to couples on an as needed basis to help resolve relationship issues. FSWs have requested such couple counselling sessions to support them in addressing issues of trust, risk, violence, condom use etc with their IPs. In these sessions, facilitators will work with both partners to support them in resolving issues while promoting equity and a positive outcome for the FSW.
Sex worker Community Based Organisation (CBO) Training of CBO members CBO members will receive training to enable them to understand and respond to violence related to IPs. This will build on previous training which focused on responding to violence by clients, the police or street criminals.
Strengthening of crisis management teams Through this project the crisis management system (which currently responds to violence by clients, the police or street criminals), will be strengthened and effective support will also be provided to FSWs experiencing intimate partner violence. FSWs who experience violence will be linked with other services like medical care, legal support or other psycho-social support.
General Population (where FSWs and their IPs live) Folk Shows and Street Plays Folk shows and street play teams that focus on issues of IPV/DV and raise awareness about the rights and laws regarding IPV/DV will be conducted in all intervention villages twice in the intervention period.
Community Events Community rallies and campaigns will be conducted in association with the other CBO programs to raise awareness on issues of IPV/DV among the general community. These rallies will aim to publicly exhibit the strength and solidarity among FSWs on issues of violence.