Skip to main content

Table 5 Predictors of pregnancy alcohol use: Tier 3

From: “Did you ever drink more?” A detailed description of pregnant women’s drinking patterns

  Drank in trimester 1, abstinent in trimester 2 and 3 Drank throughout
PAE level Low Moderate/high Binge pre-aware Low in trimester 1 Moderate/high in trimester 1 Binge pre-aware
  N AOR 95 % CI p value N AOR 95 % CI p value N AOR 95 % CI p value N AOR 95 % CI p value N AOR 95 % CI p value N AOR 95 % CI p value
Participants 597     626     582     571     646     626    
Maternal age                        
<30 years 209 Reference 218 Reference 219 Reference 191 Reference 212 Reference 207 Reference
30-34 years 228 1.11 (0.68-1.82) 0.67 242 1.46 (0.92–2.32) 0.11 209 0.90 (0.51–1.61) 0.73 229 1.62 (0.91–2.90) 0.10 247 1.51 (0.91–2.50) 0.11 264 2.58 (1.54–4.31) <0.001
> = 35 years 160 1.23 (0.71–2.11) 0.46 166 1.33 (0.81–2.21) 0.26 154 0.95 (0.52–1.74) 0.88 151 1.19 (0.62–2.28) 0.60 187 1.58 (0.94–2.68) 0.09 155 1.16 (0.64–2.13) 0.62
Pregnancy planning                        
Yes 476 Reference 502 Reference 438 Reference 456 Reference 526 Reference 491 Reference
No 121 1.67 (1.02–2.73) 0.04 124 1.32 (0.83–2.11) 0.25 144 4.94 (2.98–8.20) <0.001 115 1.83 (1.05–3.20) 0.03 120 1.07 (0.63–1.81) 0.81 135 2.00 (1.19–3.37) <0.01
Parity                        
> = 1 321 Reference 331 Reference 296 Reference 326 Reference   366 Reference 324 Reference
0 276 1.21 (0.79–1.85) 0.37 295 1.33 (0.90–1.96) 0.15 286 2.04 (1.25–3.33) <0.01 245 0.54 (0.33–0.90) 0.02 280 0.68 (0.45–1.04) 0.07 302 1.30 (0.84–2.03) 0.24
Smoking                        
No 533 Reference 538 Reference 499 Reference 502 Reference 550 Reference 519   Reference  
Yes 64 0.50 (0.23–1.13) 0.10 88 1.78 (1.05–3.00) 0.03 83 1.62 (0.88–2.98) 0.12 69 1.69 (0.81–3.52) 0.17 96 3.62 (2.07–6.33) <0.001 107 3.80 (2.20–6.55) <0.001
Perceived alcohol effect                        
Normal 236 Reference 258 Reference 250 Reference 224 Reference 291 Reference 283 Reference
Very/quickly 309 0.75 (0.49–1.14) 0.17 314 0.64 (0.44–0.94) 0.02 276 0.30 (0.18–0.50) <0.001 300 0.78 (0.49–1.24) 0.29 297 0.33 (0.21–0.50) <0.001 280 0.25 (0.15–0.40) <0.001
Very/slowly 52 0.62 (0.27–1.39) 0.26 54 0.68 (0.32–1.43) 0.31 56 0.90 (0.41–1.96) 0.78 47 0.48 (0.15–1.48) 0.20 58 0.96 (0.46–2.02) 0.92 63 1.41 (0.71–2.82) 0.33
Household income                        
<$40,000 94 Reference 93 Reference 88 Reference 84 Reference 87 Reference 82 Reference
$40–100,000 279 0.71 (0.40–1.27) 0.25 297 1.08 (0.61–1.92) 0.79 270 0.91 (0.44–1.88) 0.81 271 1.10 (0.53–2.28) 0.79 303 1.43 (0.73–2.81) 0.30 288 2.59 (1.12–5.98) 0.03
>$100,000 197 0.88 (0.47–1.63) 0.67 211 1.46 (0.79–2.67) 0.23 199 1.75 (0.83–3.70) 0.14 193 1.56 (0.73–3.31) 0.25 228 1.89 (0.93–3.84) 0.08 229 4.16 (1.77–9.77) <0.01
Missing 27 0.84 (0.29–2.40) 0.74 25 0.69 (0.21–2.29) 0.54 25 0.68 (0.18–2.63) 0.58 23 0.56 (0.11–2.90) 0.49 28 1.80 (0.57–5.66) 0.31 27 3.08 (0.84–11.27) 0.09
BMI                        
Norma 371 Reference 384 Reference 342 Reference 357 Reference 418 Reference 391 Reference
Overweight 116 0.86 (0.51–1.46) 0.57 121 0.85 (0.52–1.40) 0.53 125 1.71 (0.99–2.95) 0.05 112 0.77 (0.43–1.37) 0.37 120 0.63 (0.38–1.05) 0.08 124 0.77 (0.45–1.33) 0.35
Obese 110 0.66 (0.36–1.19) 0.16 121 0.72 (0.44–1.20) 0.21 115 0.84 (0.45–1.59) 0.60 102 0.41 (0.20–0.86) 0.02 108 0.28 (0.15–0.53) <0.001 111 0.42 (0.23–0.79) <0.01
Maternal education                        
Secondary 111 Reference 123 Reference 110 Reference 104 Reference 117 Reference 120 Reference
Trade/Diploma 154 0.81 (0.42–1.58) 0.54 178 1.03 (0.60–1.77) 0.93 171 1.93 (0.96–3.86) 0.06 148 1.07 (0.48–2.38) 0.87 168 1.06 (0.56–2.01) 0.85 165 0.86 (0.45–1.64) 0.64
Tertiary 332 1.45 (0.79–2.66) 0.23 325 0.89 (0.52–1.54) 0.68 301 1.54 (0.75–3.17) 0.24 319 2.48 (1.18–5.23) 0.02 361 2.21 (1.21–4.04) 0.01 341 1.42 (0.77–2.61) 0.26
Ethnicity                        
White 455 Reference 489 Reference 460 Reference 447 Reference 527 Reference 506 Reference
Asian/other 142 0.82 (0.49–1.37) 0.45 137 0.65 (0.39–1.08) 0.10 122 0.33 (0.16–0.71) <0.01 124 0.36 (0.18–0.71) <0.01 119 0.11 (0.05–0.25) <0.001 120 0.14 (0.06–0.32) <0.001
  1. N: Sample size for multivariate analysis (i.e. number of cases with a complete set of predictors, except for income, where a ‘missing’ category was included because ~ 4 % of missing data)
  2. AOR (95 % CI): Odds ratio and 95 % confidence interval adjusted for all predictors shown in table. Control group is abstinence in pregnancy, but not lifetime abstainer. Results are in bold font where a significant difference was found. For predictor variables with more than two categories (maternal age, perceived alcohol effect, income, BMI and education), p values from likelihood ratio tests (not shown) were used-evaluate the predictors. Likelihood ratio p values were <0.01 in all bolded results