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Table 5 Difference-in-difference analysis on female patients presenting to NHS hospital trusts with alcohol teams compared to NHS hospital trusts without - Estimated intervention effects for emergency hospital activity in the year before and the year after diagnosis (as mean per patient)

From: The impact of alcohol care teams on emergency secondary care use following a diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease - a national cohort study

  Hospital sites with an alcohol team (n = 1,478) Hospital sites with no alcohol team (n = 1,340)   
One year before diagnosis (SD) One year after diagnosis (SD) Difference (SE) One year before diagnosis (SD) One year after diagnosis (SD) Difference (SE) Difference in difference (95 % CI) P-value
Emergency admissions (all) 1.600 (1.422) 1.237 (2.072) −0.363 (0.051) 1.631 (1.750) 1.241 (2.205) −0.390 (0.053) 0.028 (−0.116 to 0.172) 0.707
Emergency admissions (alcohol related) 1.214 (1.067) 0.984 (1.789) −0.229 (0.044) 1.208 (1.250) 0.972 (1.782) −0.237 (0.046) 0.007 (−0.118 to 0.133) 0.910
Emergency department attendances 1.263 (2.334) 1.301 (3.354) 0.038 (0.062) 1.054 (2.200) 1.060 (2.482) 0.006 (0.065) 0.032 (−0.145 to 0.209) 0.724
  1. Data are mean number per patient (standard deviation) and difference (standard error). P-value is from the linear mixed model. CI confidence interval
  2. Note: The ‘one year before diagnosis’ field includes the index admission which accounts for the mean number of emergency admissions being above one in this time period