Skip to main content

Table 3 Regression analyses of the association between adoption of CDC HIV pre-test counseling guidelines and offer of on-site vs. Off-site HCV testing

From: Spillover effects of HIV testing policies: changes in HIV testing guidelines and HCV testing practices in drug treatment programs in the United States

  Off-site HCV testinga On-site HCV testing P-value Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95 % CI)b Adjusted Odds Ratio (95 % CI)b
State-level legislation enables eliminating HIV pretest counseling requirement   <0.01   
  No 42 (31.3) 92 (68.7)   1 1
  Yes 106 (59.2) 73 (40.8)   0.31 (0.20, 0.50) 1.65 (0.32, 8.46)
Prevalence of injection drug users   0.06   
   < 25 % 57 (57.0) 43 (43.0)   1 1
  25-74 % 57 (41.6) 80 (58.4)   1.86 (1.10, 3.14) 2.68 (1.11, 6.47)
   ≥ 75 % 33 (46.5) 38 (53.5)   1.53 (0.83, 2.82) 0.69 (0.24, 2.01)
African-American patients   0.49   
   < 10 % 73 (49.3) 75 (50.7)   1 1
   ≥ 10 % 75 (45.4) 90 (54.6)   1.17 (0.75, 1.82) 0.97 (0.41, 2.30)
Hispanic patients   0.70   
   < 10 % 75 (48.4) 80 (51.6)   1 1
   ≥ 10 % 73 (46.2) 85 (53.8)   1.09 (0.70, 1.70) 1.26 (0.50, 3.16)
Revenue from federal government   0.01   
  None 114 (51.8) 106 (48.2)   1 1
   ≥ 1 % 33 (36.6) 59 (63.4)   1.87 (1.13, 3.07) 2.47 (1.04, 5.88)
Revenue from private insurance   0.11   
  None 80 (43.5) 104 (56.5)   1 1
   ≥ 1 % 48 (52.7) 61 (47.3)   0.69 (0.44, 1.08) 1.33 (0.59, 2.98)
Human resources     
  Log Staff-to-patient ratio, mean (SD) -3.40 (0.78) -3.24 (0.66) 0.05 1.36 (0.99, 1.88) 1.80 (1.10, 2.93)
CARF accreditation   0.21   
  No 76 (51.0) 73 (49.0)   1 1
  Yes 72 (43.9) 97 (56.1)   1.33 (0.85, 2.08) 1.37 (0.60, 3.12)
Ownership   <0.01   
  Private not-for-profit 77 (52.0) 71 (48.0)   1 1
  Private for profit 61 (50.4) 60 (49.6)   1.07 (0.66, 1.73) 1.52 (0.66, 3.46)
  Public 10 (22.7) 34 (77.3)   3.69 (1.70, 8.02) 3.36 (0.95, 11.9)
Hospital affiliation   <0.01   
  No 134 (51.3) 127 (48.6)   1 1
  Yes 14 (26.9) 38 (73.1)   2.86 (1.48, 5.54) 6.22 (2.04, 18.9)
Methods of treatment   <0.01   
  Methadone only 69 (40.1) 103 (59.9)   1 1
  Buprenorphine only 55 (75.3) 18 (24.7)   0.22 (0.12, 0.41) 0.17 (0.06, 0.49)
  Methadone + Buprenorphine 24 (35.3) 44 (64.7)   1.23 (0.68, 2.20) 2.95 (1.19, 7.31)
Time    <0.01   
  2005 38 (27.7) 99 (72.3)   1 1
  2011 110 (62.5) 66 (37.5)   0.23 (0.14, 0.37) 0.10 (0.02, 0.45)
    N 148 (47.3) 165 (52.7)   313 282c
  1. Notes: apercentages in parentheses are column percentages; badjusted odds ratios are obtained from a logistic regression in which all variables in the table are included as independent variables. Standard errors are adjusted for clustering of observations by state. cOnly states in which laws changed between 2005 & 2011 are included in model with state-level fixed effects. p-value derived from a Wald test showed that at least one of the state dummies included in the model is significant at p < 0.05