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Table 3 Observed (Obs) and expected (Exp) numbers of children with overweight at four years of age, together with the results from the multi-level analysis. Moreover, an example of results obtained by imputing missing values is presented in light grey

From: Overweight at four years of age in a Swedish birth cohort: influence of neighbourhood-level purchasing power

  Neighbourhood level without adjustments Neighbourhood level with adjustmentsc Neighbourhood level with adjustmentsc
  Obs Exp COR (95 % CI)a COREB (95 % CI)b Obs Exp AOR (95 % CI)d AOREB (95 % CI)e Obs Exp AOR (95 % CI)d AOREB (95 % CI)e
Neighbourhood purchasing power f          Example of results with missing values imputed:
  <10 21 37.0 0.57 (0.35–0.87) 0.67 (0.46–0.93) 16 26.6 0.60 (0.34–0.98) 0.73 (0.46–1.02) 21 33.9 0.62 (0.38–0.95) 0.74 (0.51–0.99)
 10–19.9 100 89.7 1.11 (0.91–1.36) 1.09 (0.90–1.31) 74 66.6 1.11 (0.87–1.39) 1.09 (0.86–1.34) 100 87.3 1.15 (0.93–1.39) 1.11 (0.91–1.33)
 20–29.9 107 102.6 1.04 (0.86–1.26) 1.03 (0.85–1.23) 81 79.8 1.01 (0.81–1.26) 1.01 (0.81–1.23) 107 107.8 0.99 (0.82–1.20) 0.99 (0.81–1.17)
 30+ 14 12.6 1.11 (0.61–1.86) 1.03 (0.67–1.48) 12 9.3 1.28 (0.66–2.24) 1.13 (0.69–1.62) 14 13.1 1.07 (0.59–1.80) 1.01 (0.66–1.40)
  1. aCrude overweight ratio = Obs/Exp (95 % confidence interval)
  2. bEmpirical Bayes-adjusted COR (95 % confidence interval)
  3. cData were stratified by child’s gender, LGA, mother’s BMI before pregnancy (≤25, 25–30, 30+), father’s BMI (≤25, 25–30, 30+) and parental educational level (none post-secondary, one post-secondary, both post-secondary), in order to adjust for potential confounding across the neighbourhoods
  4. dAdjusted overweight ratio = Obs/Exp (95 % confidence interval)
  5. eEmpirical Bayes-adjusted AOR (95 % confidence interval)
  6. fProportion (%) of families with low purchasing power (according to Swedish standards; <19,500 USD annual income) among all resident families with at least one child (up to 19 years old) in a neighbourhood area (parish)