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Table 5 Urine biomarker concentration summary and statistical comparisons

From: Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes

  Exclusive e-Cigarette use groups Dual use groups Nicotine cessation
N = 13
Biomarker Tobacco rechargeable
N = 15
Cherry rechargeable
N = 13
Cherry disposable
N = 13
Tobacco rechargeable
N = 14
Cherry rechargeable
N = 15
Cherry disposable
N = 13
NNAL (ng/24 h)       
 Day −1 427.6 ± 218.8 383.7 ± 178.8 299.1 ± 165.0 430.8 ± 217.1 422.0 ± 257.5 343.3 ± 123.3 481.6 ± 377.5
 Day 5 174.3 ± 144.6 149.2 ± 80.3 111.1 ± 68.9 328.6 ± 178.9 321.1 ± 177.3 269.2 ± 96.3 175.1 ± 140.8
 p-value Day −1 vs Day 5 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0063 0.0042 0.0028 0.0004
 p-value Day 5 vs Cessation 0.1940 0.2456 0.2593 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 NA
3-HPMA (μg/24 h)       
 Day −1 1521.7 ± 820.0 1903.0 ± 1132.7 1353.7 ± 598.8 1644.1 ± 501.3 1474.6 ± 519.9 1489.5 ± 567.1 2004.1 ± 1137.8
 Day 5 214.4 ± 94.3 263.1 ± 64.7 246.7 ± 101.5 1046.2 ± 360.6 1070.7 ± 342.2 1155.4 ± 368.5 228.8 ± 84.2
 p-value Day −1 vs Day 5 <0.0001 0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0009 0.0062 <.0001
 p-value Day 5 vs Cessation 0.5137 0.6099 0.3194 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 NA
HMPMA (μg/24 h)       
 Day −1 523.8 ± 225.3 657.2 ± 328.9 533.4 ± 208.3 590.7 ± 178.7 597.5 ± 198.0 504.5 ± 167.1 797.7 ± 429.4
 Day 5 71.3 ± 33.1 83.2 ± 32.3 78.0 ± 20.7 391.8 ± 151.2 394.6 ± 119.3 386.8 ± 94.1 78.1 ± 18.6
 p-value Day −1 vs Day 5 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0094 <.0001
p-value Day 5 vs Cessation 0.4785 0.5206 0.4211 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 NA
CEMA (μg/24 h)       
 Day −1 219.7 ± 98.5 266.1 ± 140.9 201.0 ± 72.8 256.0 ± 97.9 246.2 ± 109.8 223.5 ± 61.6 289.7 ± 132.2
 Day 5 33.4 ± 21.8 41.3 ± 30.4 25.9 ± 11.2 172.8 ± 72.1 168.3 ± 50.9 173.0 ± 63.7 41.0 ± 19.7
 p-value Day −1 vs Day 5 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0002 0.0010 0.0002 <.0001
 p-value Day 5 vs Cessation 0.2902 0.6357 0.4549 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 NA
1-OHP (ng/24 h)       
 Day −1 317.4 ± 138.7 302.9 ± 171.5 260.9 ± 166.8 363.6 ± 174.1 294.5 ± 145.5 304.1 ± 122.7 364.0 ± 200.7
 Day 5 93.7 ± 52.9 85.9 ± 32.2 90.6 ± 38.4 235.1 ± 121.1 206.3 ± 90.9 224.1 ± 89.5 108.2 ± 55.0
 p-value Day −1 vs Day 5 <.0001 0.0002 0.0007 0.0006 0.0004 0.0007 <.0001
 p-value Day 5 vs Cessation 0.8331 0.7524 0.4115 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 NA
NNN (ng/24 h)       
 Day −1 18.6 ± 12.1 13.7 ± 11.5 13.9 ± 12.5 14.3 ± 8.6 12.3 ± 8.1 11.3 ± 5.4 16.2 ± 12.1
 Day 5 1.2 ± 2.4 0.7 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 3.3 8.9 ± 7.7 7.6 ± 5.4 7.1 ± 3.1 0.2 ± 0.1
 p-value Day −1 vs Day 5 <.0001 0.0011 0.0045 0.0001 0.0019 0.0032 0.0005
 p-value Day 5 vs Cessation 0.6402 0.6223 0.3974 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 NA
MHBMA (μg/24 h)       
 Day −1 4.9 ± 3.5 5.9 ± 3.8 4.6 ± 3.2 5.0 ± 2.9 3.4 ± 2.5 4.5 ± 2.8 5.6 ± 3.6
 Day 5 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 3.5 ± 2.1 2.8 ± 1.8 4.3 ± 2.3 0.4 ± 0.1
 p-value Day −1 vs Day 5 0.0002 0.0002 0.0006 0.0024 0.0320 0.1539 0.0002
 p-value Day 5 vs Cessation 0.8548 0.8106 0.7313 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 NA
S-PMA (μg/24 h)       
 Day −1 6.3 ± 3.7 8.1 ± 4.9 6.3 ± 3.9 7.0 ± 4.4 4.9 ± 3.5 6.9 ± 5.5 7.6 ± 4.3
 Day 5 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.3 0.4 ± 0.2 4.9 ± 3.3 3.6 ± 2.3 6.0 ± 4.6 0.3 ± 0.2
 p-value Day −1 vs Day 5 <.0001 <.0001 0.0001 0.0031 0.0055 0.0072 <.0001
 p-value Day 5 vs Cessation 0.5274 0.7602 0.4430 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 NA
Nicotine Equivalents (mg/24 h)      
 Day −1 17.0 ± 6.6 17.6 ± 8.7 14.5 ± 4.4 16.6 ± 5.5 16.0 ± 6.2 15.7 ± 3.9 20.0 ± 8.9
 Day 5 10.7 ± 9.1 12.7 ± 9.7 10.5 ± 9.6 18.4 ± 7.2 15.9 ± 5.5 15.8 ± 5.0 0.5 ± 0.2
 p-value Day −1 vs Day 5 0.0115 0.0415 0.0033 0.4188 0.9103 0.8519 <.0001
 p-value Day 5 vs Cessation <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 NA
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD