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Table 2 Study design characteristics of included RCTs

From: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of mHealth interventions against non-communicable diseases in developing countries

Study Location Income group Conditions Place of recruitment Inclusion criteria Sample size Mean Age (Intervention; control) Planned Follow-up Measured outcomes
Balsa and Gandel-man [25] Uruguay (urban) UMIC Type 2 Diabetes Waiting rooms of internists treating diabetic patients at three HMOs in Montevideo Adult patients with Diabetes
2; Access to Internet (at least
once a week)
195 (intervention)
193 (control)
n/d 6 months Clinical, Others
Shetty et al. [26] India (urban) LMIC Diabetes Patients at a diabetes centre in Chennai Type 2 Diabetes with a minimum duration of 5 years;
Minimum of high school
Education; HbA1c value ranging between 7 % to 10 %
110 (intervention)
105 (control)
50.1; 50.5 1 year Clinical, Compliance
Liew et al. [30] Malaysia (urban) UMIC Different chronic diseases (mainly NCDs) Two primary care clinics in Kuala Lumpur Registered with the clinics for at least 6 months; return appointment between 1 and 6 months; ownership of a mobile phone 314 (telephone)
398 (text mesages)
309 (control)
57.7; 58.1; 60.7 At least 6 months Compliance
Liu et al. [28] Taiwan (urban) UMIC Asthma Outpatient clinics of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, northern Taiwan Moderate to severe Asthma 43 (intervention)
46 (control)
6 months Clinical, Compliance, QoL
Ostojic et al. [29] Croatia (urban) UMIC Asthma General Hospital “SvetiDuh”, Zagreb Moderate Asthma for at least 6 months; consistent access to a cellphone, able to use text messages 8 (intervention)
8 (control)
24.5; 24.8 16 weeks Clinical, Compliance, Costs
Piette et al. [23] Honduras (rural),
Mexico (urban)
UMIC, LMIC Hypertension Four private and two public clinics in Cortes, Honduras and one primary care center in Real de Monte SBP > = 130 mm Hg if diabetic and SBP > = 140 mm Hg if non-diabetic; between 18 and 80 years; access to a cellphone and able to use it 89 (intervention)
92 (control)
58.0; 57.1 6 weeks Clinical, Others
Shahid et al. [27] Pakistan (rural) LMIC Diabetes Department of Endocrinology, Liaquat National Hospital Patients between 18–70 years, residing in rural areas of Pakistan, HbA1c ≥ 8.0 % and having personal functional mobile phone 220 (intervention)
220 (control)
48.95; 49.21 6 months Clinical,
Tian et al. [24] China (rural),
India (rural)
UMIC, LMIC Cardiovascular Diseases CHWs at 27 villages from 15 townships in China and 20 villages in Haryana State, India High cardiovascular risk individuals: above 40 years and a self-reported history of coronary disease 1095 (intervention);
991 (control)
59.7; 60.4 One year Clinical, Compliance