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Table 2 Adjusted ratios comparing the annual trip counts and trip kilometers before and after graduated driver licensinga

From: The association between graduated driver licensing laws and travel behaviors among adolescents: an analysis of US National Household Travel Surveys

  Adjusted ratiob (95 % CI)
  Trips Kilometers
  Age 16 Age 17 Age 16 Age 17
Driver 0.84 (0.71, 1.00) 0.94 (0.83, 1.07) 0.79 (0.63, 0.98) 0.80 (0.63, 1.03)
Other methods 1.03 (0.93, 1.14) 0.94 (0.84, 1.06) 1.00 (0.82, 1.22) 1.07 (0.84, 1.35)
Passenger in passenger vehicles 1.09 (0.96, 1.25) 0.90 (0.77, 1.04) 0.92 (0.73, 1.15) 1.00 (0.76, 1.31)
   Bus rider 1.04 (0.81, 1.35) 1.26 (0.94, 1.67) 1.45 (0.99, 2.11) 1.24 (0.85, 1.80)
   Bicyclist 1.16 (0.61, 2.19) 1.04 (0.48, 2.27) 0.75 (0.34, 1.66) 2.44 (0.97, 6.13)
   Pedestrian 1.01 (0.78, 1.31) 1.14 (0.83, 1.55) 0.84 (0.61, 1.15) 1.09 (0.76, 1.55)
All trips 0.98 (0.91, 1.05) 0.95 (0.89, 1.01) 0.90 (0.78, 1.04) 0.91 (0.76, 1.09)
  1. Abbreviation: CI confidence interval
  2. aData from the US National Household Travel Survey
  3. bAdjusted ratios compare the average annual number of trips or trip kilometers by respondents exposed to graduated driver licensing with those not exposed, adjusted for changes over time. Exposure to graduated driver licensing means living in a state that had graduated driver licensing laws