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Table 2 Domestic secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among 0- to 6-year-old children in Germany by socioeconomic status (SES) and parental smoking behaviour

From: Social disparities in parental smoking and young children’s exposure to secondhand smoke at home: a time-trend analysis of repeated cross-sectional data from the German KiGGS study between 2003-2006 and 2009-2012

  KiGGS baseline study (2003-2006) KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
  OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
p value p value p value p value
Socioeconomic status (SES)     
 Low 11.63 (9.11–14.85) 6.58 (4.97–8.71) 13.59 (7.03–26.28) 6.59 (3.17–13.68)
p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
 Medium 3.93 (3.11–4.96) 2.76 (2.10–3.62) 2.77 (1.54–5.00) 1.73 (0.94–3.20)
p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.080
 High Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Parental smoking behaviour     
 Both parents smoke 19.10 (15.38–23.73) 15.29 (12.21–19.13) 11.08 (5.90–20.80) 7.40 (3.78–14.48)
p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
 One parent smokes 7.43 (5.98–9.23) 6.53 (5.21–8.17) 7.08 (4.01–12.50) 5.55 (3.16–9.75)
p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
 Neither parent smokes Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex of the child, Model 2: + mutually adjusted for SES and parental smoking behaviour; bold = significant at .05 level; Results of the KiGGS baseline study and KiGGS Wave 1 were adjusted to the population structure in Germany 2009/2010