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Table 3 Multivariate odds ratios (95 % CI)a for good control of hypertension according to residential areas

From: Health inequalities in hypertension and diabetes management among the poor in urban areas: a population survey analysis in south Korea

  Male Female
  Urban Rural Urban Rural
Age, years
 30-44 3.55 (2.95–4.27) 3.14 (2.11–4.69) 7.45 (5.23–10.60) 4.74 (2.47–9.07)
 45-64 1.42 (1.23–1.63) 1.63 (1.26–2.13) 1.73 (1.38–2.16) 1.69 (1.17–2.42)
 >64 years 1 1 1 1
Educational level
 ≤Elementary school 0.74 (0.60–0.92) 0.67 (0.46–0.99) 0.53 (0.37–0.75) 0.45 (0.18–1.15)
 Middle/high school 0.94 (0.81–1.10) 0.75 (0.51–1.09) 0.77 (0.57–1.03) 0.53 (0.21–1.32)
 ≥College 1 1 1 1
Monthly income (thousand wonb)
 ≤ 1000 0.83 (0.67–1.03) 1.08 (0.73–1.60) 0.98 (0.73–1.33 1.13 (0.65–1.99)
 1001-3000 0.90 (0.76–1.07) 1.02 (0.71–1.46) 1.09 (0.83–1.42) 1.44 (0.85–2.44)
 > 3000 1 1 1 1
Marital status
 Married 1 1 1 1
 Othersc 0.91 (0.78–1.07) 0.75 (0.57–0.98) 0.98 (0.79–1.20) 0.80 (0.56–1.16)
Smoking status     
 Current 0.70 (0.60–0.82) 0.87 (0.68–1.11) 1.10 (0.74–1.62) 1.01 (0.60–1.70)
 Ex-smoker 0.70 (0.61–0.81) 0.81 (0.62–1.07) 0.90 (0.62–1.29) 1.30 (0.71–2.39)
 Non-smoker 1 1 1 1
Alcohol drinkingd
 Non-drinker 1.74 (1.50–2.01) 1.57 (1.20–2.06) 1.31 (1.02–1.69) 1.01 (0.60–1.70)
 <1/month 1.63 (1.33–2.00) 1.59 (1.10–2.32) 1.25 (0.89–1.76) 1.30 (0.71–2.39)
 ≥1/month 1 1 1 1
Regular physical exerciser 1.00 (0.89–1.14) 0.89 (0.70–1.11) 0.92 (0.77–1.09) 0.77 (0.57–1.02)
  1. Data are weighted to the residential population of Korea
  2. Urban and Rural groups are defined as participants who reside ‘dong’, ‘eup and myeon’ (Korean administrative section), respectively
  3. aAdjusted for age, BMI, physical activity, alcohol, smoking, marital status, monthly income, and educational level
  4. bThe exchange rate is approximately 1,100 Korean won for 1 US dollar
  5. cIncluding widowed and divorced persons
  6. dThe frequency of high risk drinking, high risk drinking is defined as consuming more than 5 standard drinks of women and 7 standard drinks of women per each occasion on average