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Table 2 Bivariable and multivariable GEE analyses of factors associated with public crack smoking in the previous six months among VIDUS and ACCESS participants who smoked crack in Vancouver, Canada (n = 1085)

From: Risky and rushed public crack cocaine smoking: the potential for supervised inhalation facilities

  Unadjusted Adjusted
Characteristic Odds ratio (95 % CI) p-value Odds ratio (95 % CI) p-value
Age     
 (per one-year decrease) 1.06 (1.05 – 1.08) <0.001 1.03 (1.01 – 1.04) <0.001
Gender     
 (female vs. male) 1.09 (0.86 – 1.39) 0.465   
HIV serostatus     
 (positive vs. negative) 0.71 (0.56 – 0.91) 0.006   
Homelessnessa     
 (yes vs. no) 4.55 (3.71 – 5.59) <0.001 3.48 (2.77 – 4.36) <0.001
Drug dealinga     
 (yes vs. no) 2.76 (2.30 – 3.32) <0.001 1.59 (1.30 – 1.94) <0.001
Sex worka     
 (yes vs. no) 1.94 (1.48 – 2.54) <0.001   
Crack smokinga
 (≥ daily vs. < daily) 3.11 (2.59 – 3.74) <0.001 2.69 (2.19 – 3.31) <0.001
Shared crack pipea
 (yes vs. no) 2.78 (2.31 – 3.34) <0.001 1.98 (1.60 – 2.46) <0.001
Binge non-injection drug usea
 (yes vs. no) 1.44 (1.24 – 1.67) <0.001   
Heroin injectiona     
 (≥ daily vs. < daily) 2.21 (1.72 – 2.84) <0.001   
Cocaine injectiona     
 (≥ daily vs. < daily) 1.48 (1.09 – 1.99) 0.011   
Crystal meth injectiona    
 (≥ daily vs. < daily) 0.89 (0.57 – 1.40) 0.626   
Public injection drug usea     
 (Always or usually vs. sometimes, occasionally or never) 7.46 (5.42 – 10.28) <0.001 5.42 (3.76 – 7.82) <0.001
Noticed police presencea     
 (yes vs. no) 1.67 (1.42 – 1.97) <0.001 1.30 (1.06 – 1.60) 0.013
Stopped, searched or detained without arrest by policea
 (yes vs. no) 1.98 (1.61 – 2.44) <0.001   
Incarcerationa     
 (yes vs. no) 2.36 (1.79 – 3.11) <0.001 1.47 (1.09 – 1.98) 0.011
Drug addiction treatment (excluding methadone)a
 (yes vs. no) 0.95 (0.78 – 1.16) 0.622   
Victim of violencea     
 (yes vs. no) 1.52 (1.22 – 1.88) <0.001   
  1. aDenotes activities/events in the previous six months