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Table 4 Adjusted associations of early risk behaviour, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors with age 19 unsafe sex, heavy alcohol use and drug use

From: The correlates and course of multiple health risk behaviour in adolescence

  Unsafe sex Heavy alcohol use Drug use
OR (CI) P OR (CI) P OR (CI) P
Sociodemographics
Gender (ref: Male) .71 (.61, .81) <.001 .61 (.53, .69) <.001 .47 (.40, .54) <.001
Low parental education 1.31 (1.08, 1.58) .006 .52 (.43, .63) <.001 .98 (.81, 1.20) .862
IMD (ref: least deprived)
 2nd least deprived 1.28 (1.01, 1.61) .04 .87 (.74, 1.01) .067 1.06 (.88, 1.27) .535
 Median quintile 1.56 (1.23, 1.97) <.001 .76 (.64, .90) .002 .99 (.79, 1.23) .923
 2nd most deprived 2.27 (1.79, 2.87) <.001 .62 (.51, .75) <.001 1.07 (.85, 1.34) .584
 Most deprived 2.26 (1.74, 2.95) <.001 .43 (.34, .55) <.001 .98 (.76, 1.27) .886
Ethnicity (ref: White)
 Asian .16 (.11, .23) <.001 .35 (.26, .46) <.001 .32 (.24, .43) <.001
 Black .57 (.40, .80) .001 .25 (.17, .37) <.001 .55 (.35, .88) .012
 Mixed .89 (.62, 1.29) .551 .80 (.56, 1.13) .198 1.79 (1.31, 2.45) <.001
 Other .45 (.24, .85) .014 .43 (.34, .55) <.001 .41 (.21, .78) .007
Risk behaviours
Regular alcohol use
 Age 14 only 1.95 (1.33, 2.87) .001 1.45 (1.04, 2.04) .031 1.70 (1.17, 2.49) .006
 Age 16 only 1.99 (1.60, 2.46) <.001 2.24 (1.90, 2.65) <.001 3.06 (2.52, 3.71) <.001
 Both age 14 and 16 3.00 (2.18, 4.13) <.001 3.82 (2.93, 4.98) <.001 3.96 (2.92, 5.35) <.001
Regular smoking
 Age 14 only 2.68 (1.16, 6.15) .021 1.02 (.45, 2.32) .955 2.54 (1.12, 5.75) .025
 Age 16 only 2.99 (2.43, 3.70) <.001 1.49 (1.24, 1.81) <.001 4.44 (3.65, 5.41) <.001
 Both age 14 and 16 3.25 (2.32, 4.55) <.001 1.06 (.73, 1.54) .753 5.28 (3.87, 7.19) <.001
Delinquency
 Age 14 only 2.20 (1.76, 2.75) <.001 1.03 (.85, 1.25) .757 2.08 (1.69, 2.54) <.001
 Age 16 only 2.54 (1.98, 3.24) <.001 1.40 (1.12, 1.74) .003 2.58 (2.06, 3.22) <.001
 Both age 14 and 16 4.33 (3.49, 5.36) <.001 1.65 (1.34, 2.02) <.001 5.32 (4.34, 6.53) <.001
Tried cannabis
 Tried by age 14 2.71 (2.16, 3.41) <.001 1.80 (1.47, 2.22) <.001 7.81 (6.25, 9.75) <.001
 Tried by age 16 2.22 (1.84, 2.67) <.001 2.13 (1.83, 2.47) <.001 5.29 (4.47, 6.26) <.001
Age 14 risk score
 One 2.13 (1.76, 2.56) <.001 1.34 (1.15, 1.55) <.001 2.42 (2.03, 2.88) <.001
 Two 2.90 (2.21, 3.81) <.001 1.49 (1.15, 1.94) .002 4.15 (3.19, 5.38) <.001
 Three 4.12 (2.87, 5.90) <.001 1.32 (.93, 1.88) .118 6.83 (4.96, 9.40) <.001
 Four 4.36 (2.22, 8.58) <.001 2.84 (1.51, 5.37) .001 8.73 (4.59, 16.60) <.001
Age 16 risk score
 One 1.93 (1.58, 2.36) <.001 1.81 (1.55, 2.10) <.001 3.23 (2.65, 3.93) <.001
 Two 3.14 (2.48, 3.96) <.001 2.30 (1.91, 2.78) <.001 5.98 (4.84, 7.39) <.001
 Three 3.75 (2.93, 4.80) <.001 2.53 (2.00, 3.21) <.001 10.70 (8.38, 13.66) <.001
 Four 6.05 (4.36, 8.38) <.001 2.73 (2.04, 3.67) <.001 14.10 (10.47,18.99 <.001
Interpersonal factors  
 GHQ (age 15) 1.52 (1.26, 1.83) <.001 1.28 (1.10, 1.50) .002 1.72 (1.43, 2.06) <.001
 Friends over often (age 14) 1.42 (1.20, 1.68) <.001 .93 (.81, 1.06) .271 1.37 (1.16, 1.60) <.001
 Out with friends often (age 14) 1.79 (1.54, 2.08) <.001 1.01 (.89, 1.15) .856 1.53 (1.33, 1.75) <.001
 Bullied in last 12 months (age 14) 1.28 (1.09, 1.50) .002 1.02 (.90, 1.16) .740 1.34 (1.15, 1.55) <.001
School factors
 Low academic attainment (age 14) 1.71 (1.43, 2.05) <.001 .62 (.51, .74) <.001 .95 (.77, 1.16) .590
 Self-reported bad at school (age 14) 1.92 (1.64, 2.24) <.001 .82 (.72, .93) .002 1.29 (1.10, 1.50) .001
 Exclusions in past 3 years (age 14) 1.95 (1.52, 2.52) <.001 1.03 (.80, 1.32) .839 2.08 (1.63, 2.64) <.001
 Truancy in last 12 months (age 14) 2.11 (1.72, 2.60) <.001 1.31 (1.10, 1.57) .003 2.80 (2.34, 3.36) <.001
 Attitudes towards school (age 14; continuous) .95 (.94, .96) <.001 .99 (.98, 1.00) .011 .96 (.95, .97) <.001
Family factors
 Single parent family (age 14) 1.37 (1.15, 1.64) .001 .87 (.73, 1.03) .113 1.31 (1.10, 1.57) .003
 Not get on very well with parents (age 14) 1.22 (1.03, 1.44) .022 1.12 (.98, 1.29) .105 1.21 (1.03, 1.41) .020
 Low parental communication (age 14) 1.31 (1.11, 1.54) .001 1.11 (.97, 1.27) .129 1.41 (1.21, 1.63) <.001
 Parents not always know where child is in evenings (age 14) 1.81 (1.55, 2.10) <.001 1.24 (1.09, 1.40) .001 1.93 (1.68, 2.21) <.001
  1. All analyses were adjusted for ethnicity, parental education, area deprivation (English Index of Multiple Deprivation; IMD) and gender. Associations for all other items are modeled separately
  2. Ref reference group. Where not stated, the reference group for all other categorical variables is the absence of the stated factor. All predictor variables are binary except “attitudes towards school”