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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Effect of gargling with tea and ingredients of tea on the prevention of influenza infection: a meta-analysis

    Age (yr), mean ± SD Sex (M/F) Duration (mo) Study design Reference
Author Year of publication Total N Tea Control Tea Control    
Iwata et al. 1997 297 30 ± NA 24 ± NA NA NA 5 Prospective cohort [17]
Yamada et al. 2006 124 83 ± 8 83 ± 8 24/52 16/32 3 Prospective cohort [18]
Yamada et al. 2007 404 40 ± 11 40 ± 12 36/164 52/152 3 Randomized controlled [19]
Toyoizumi et al. 2013 308 16 ± 1 16 ± 1 98/57 86/67 3 Randomized controlled [21]
Ide et al. 2014 757 16 ± 1* 16 ± 1* 224/160* 199/164* 3 Randomized controlled [22]
  1. yr years, SD standard deviation, M male, F female, mo months, NA not assessed.
  2. * Full analysis set (Characteristics of the total population is not shown in the article)