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Table 3 Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality: results of Cox proportional hazard model (N=10,271)

From: Social participation and mortality: does social position in civic groups matter?

  Crudea) IPTWb)
  HR (95 % CI) HR (95 % CI)
Social participation   
 Regular position in the social organization(s) reference reference
 Leadership position in one or more social organization(s) 0.72 (0.62 to 0.85) 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99)
Age   
 65–69 reference reference
 70–74 1.40 (1.12 to 1.76) 1.27 (1.07 to 1.50)
 75–79 2.42 (1.95 to 3.01) 2.20 (1.87 to 2.59)
 80–84 4.27 (3.38 to 5.40) 3.79 (3.17 to 4.54)
 85 or older 9.03 (7.05 to 11.56) 7.34 (5.84 to 9.21)
Sex   
 Female reference reference
 Male 2.10 (1.81 to 2.44) 2.75 (2.40 to 3.15)
Individual-level equivalent income (JPY)   
 <19,999 reference reference
 20,000–39,999 1.01 (0.85 to 1.20) 1.19 (1.03 to 1.37)
40,000 0.78 (0.56 to 1.10) 1.01 (0.74 to 1.37)
Educational attainment   
 Less than 6 years reference reference
 6–9 years 0.54 (0.41 to 0.73) 0.79 (0.60 to 1.06)
 10–12 years 0.41 (0.30 to 0.56) 0.78 (0.59 to 1.03)
 13 years and more 0.43 (0.30 to 0.62) 0.65 (0.45 to 0.94)
 Other 1.16 (0.47 to 2.91) 1.38 (0.69 to 2.75)
Marital status   
 Married and spouse is alive 0.82 (0.70 to 0.97) 0.86 (0.75 to 0.99)
 Other reference reference
Self-reported health   
 Very good reference reference
 Good 1.28 (0.91 to 1.80) 0.97 (0.72 to 1.31)
 Poor 2.67 (1.88 to 3.79) 1.58 (1.13 to 2.21)
 Very poor 5.98 (4.08 to 8.75) 2.55 (1.74 to 3.73)
Self-reported physical function   
 Very good reference reference
 Good 1.20 (0.93 to 1.55) 1.01 (0.79 to 1.28)
 Poor 2.61 (1.98 to 3.44) 1.32 (0.98 to 1.77)
 Very poor 4.59 (3.28 to 6.41) 1.48 (1.03 to 2.13)
Self-reported medical conditions   
 No illness reference reference
 Having illness but need no treatment 1.91 (1.37 to 2.66) 1.39 (1.08 to 1.80)
 Having illness but discontinued treatment 1.52 (1.02 to 2.27) 1.30 (0.96 to 1.77)
 Receiving some treatment 2.18 (1.70 to 2.80) 1.28 (1.04 to 1.59)
Geriatric Depression Scale   
 Normal reference reference
 Mildly depressed 1.59 (1.36 to 1.85) 1.17 (1.03 to 1.33)
 Severely depressed 2.18 (1.73 to 2.74) 1.19 (0.96 to 1.48)
Residence year   
 Less than 10 years 0.80 (0.51 to 1.26) 0.97 (0.69 to 1.37)
 10–19 years 0.80 (0.55 to 1.17) 0.88 (0.67 to 1.16)
 20–29 years 0.89 (0.68 to 1.17) 1.22 (0.97 to 1.53)
 30–39 years 0.67 (0.52 to 0.86) 0.94 (0.76 to 1.15)
 40–49 years 0.63 (0.50 to 0.79) 1.11 (0.93 to 1.31)
 50 years and more reference reference
  1. a) Crude HR unadjusted models using each covariate as a single exposure when examining association with allcause mortality
  2. b) IPTW HR inverse probability of treatment weighted HR