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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of characteristics independently associated with dual method use among HIV-positive respondents receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at 18 public sector clinic in Lusaka, Zambia (n = 1014)

From: Contraceptive use among HIV-infected women and men receiving antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia: a cross-sectional survey

  Women Men
n = 797 n = 217
Predictors Unadjusted OR Adjusted ORa Unadjusted OR Adjusted ORa
(95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Age (years)     
 15–24 ref   b  
 25–34 1.45 (1.09–1.92)*   0.99 (0.70–1.40)  
 35–49c 0.98 (0.71–1.35)   ref  
  > 49    0.54 (0.32–1.40)  
Desire a child in the next year     
 Yes ref ref ref ref
 No/Don’t know 1.59 (1.16–2.19)* 2.22 (1.66–2.98)* 2.16 (1.43–3.26)* 4.36 (1.30–4.62)*
HIV status disclosed to partner     
 No/don’t know/no partner ref ref ref ref
 Yes 8.91 (4.81–16.49)* 4.35 (2.61–7.25)* 6.74 (2.46–18.46)* 2.33 (1.26–4.32)*
Partner’s HIV status     
 Negative/Don’t know/No partner ref ref ref  
 Positive 2.49 (2.09–2.97)* 1.34 (1.08–1.67)* 1.70 (1.21–2.40)*  
Sexually active in previous 6 months     
 No 1 1 1 1
 Yes 4.88 (3.21–7.42)* 2.78 (1.85–4.19)* 2.55 (1.40–4.65)* 6.24 (3.51–11.08)*
  1. Dual method use refers to the use of condoms (male or female) concurrently with another method of contraception
  2. aThe estimation method was backward-selection multivariable logistic model (cluster standard error) with removal probability being ≥ 0.2
  3. bNo man aged 15–24 years used highly effective modern method
  4. cUsed as reference for men because 15–24 age category had no man using dual methods, making the age category highly unstable for referent
  5. * P-value < 0.01