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Table 2 Multilevel analyses of the effectiveness of the SmokeFree Sports intervention between baseline (T0) and post-intervention (T1)

From: Effect of a sport-for-health intervention (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among 9-10 year old primary school children: a controlled trial

  Mean differencea (T1-T0: M ± SD or %) Crude modelb Adjusted modelc
Outcome measure β or RR (95 % CI) P β or RR (95 % CI) P
Smoking intentions       
 Total non-smoking intentions I 0.03 ± 0.98 0.03d (−0.07, 0.13) 0.51 0.02d (−0.08, 0.12) 0.71
  C 0.07 ± 0.95     
Cigarette refusal self-efficacy       
 Total refusal self-efficacy I 0.29 ± 3.52 0.28d (−0.10, 0.67) 0.15 0.28d (−0.11, 0.67) 0.17
  C 0.15 ± 3.77     
Attitudes towards smoking       
 Smoking is bad for health (‘definitely yes’) I 3.8 1.03e (0.99, 1.06) 0.19 1.03e (0.99, 1.06) 0.15
  C 2.5     
 Safe to smoke…year or two (‘definitely not’) I 3.1 1.23e(1.11, 1.36) <0.001* 1.19e (1.07, 1.33) 0.01
  C −5.0     
 Difficult to quit once started (‘definitely yes’) I 15.4 1.58e (1.41, 1.78) <0.001* 1.56e (1.38, 1.76) <0.001*
  C −0.5     
 Others smoke is harmful to you (‘definitely yes’) I 2.4 1.19e (1.07, 1.31) <0.01* 1.19e (1.20, 2.08) <0.01*
  C −2.5     
 Affects sports performance (‘definitely yes’) I 30.3 1.70e (1.58, 1.85) <0.001* 1.73e (1.59, 1.88) <0.001*
  C 0.9     
 Makes you gain or lose weight (‘no difference’) I 26.3 2.11e (1.85, 2.41) <0.001* 2.13e (1.86, 2.44) <0.001*
  C −9.1     
  1. Notes: β = beta coefficient; RR = relative risk; CI = confidence interval, I = intervention group; C = comparison. Values reflect the intervention effects (i.e., between-group differences) between baseline and post-intervention
  2. *Significant intervention effect (P < 0.05)
  3. aUnadjusted within-group mean difference (post-intervention minus baseline)
  4. bAdjusted for group and baseline value of the outcome measure
  5. cAdditionally adjusted for school and deprivation level, sex, age, ethnicity, other individual smoking-related cognitions at baseline, enjoyment of physical activity and mother/father/sibling/friend smoking
  6. dβ value
  7. eRelative risk