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Table 2 Prevalence and multivariate adjusted relative risk (RR) with (95 % Cl) for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency compared to the sufficient group S-[OH]D > 50 nmol/L

From: Determinants of vitamin D status in young adults: influence of lifestyle, sociodemographic and anthropometric factors

  Vitamin D deficiency Vitamin D insufficiency
S-25[OH]D ≤ 25 nmol/L 25 nmol/L < S-[OH]D ≤ 50 nmol/L
Modifiable variables n/ntotal RR P n/ntotal RR P
Exercise (hours last 7 days)
 7 and above 22/112 1 Reference . 44/134 1 Reference .
 4 to 7 17/85 0.99 (0.60, 1.64) 0.97 33/101 0.91 (0.64, 1.30) 0.61
 2 to 4 24/92 1.12 (0.71, 1.76) 0.64 52/120 1.22 (0.88, 1.69) 0.24
 1/2 to 2 38/107 1.55 (1.02, 2.36) 0.04 59/128 1.26 (0.92, 1.72) 0.16
 0 to 1/2 34/66 1.88 (1.21, 2.94) 0.01 50/82 1.51 (1.11, 2.06) 0.01
Smoking status (last 7 days)
 Non Smoker 82/315 1 Reference . 152/385 1 Reference .
 Smoker 53/147 1.33 (1.02, 1.73) 0.034 86/180 1.08 (0.88, 1.33) 0.455
Alcohol (units last 7 days)
 0 Non drinker 77/214 1 Reference . 103/240 1 Reference .
 1 to 4 29/102 0.73 (0.52, 1.03) 0.08 54/127 0.99 (0.77, 1.28) 0.94
 5 or more 29/146 0.68 (0.47, 0.97) 0.03 81/198 0.99 (0.79, 1.25) 0.94
Fast food (meals last 7 days)
 0 19/116 1 Reference . 59/156 1 Reference .
 1 63/189 1.59 (1.05, 2.43) 0.03 90/216 1.11 (0.87, 1.43) 0.40
 2 or more 53/157 1.41 (0.90, 2.22) 0.14 89/193 1.13 (0.87, 1.47) 0.34
Education (currently attending)
 Vocational/Trade school 30/57 1.23 (0.90, 1.69) 0.20 40/67 1.14 (0.89, 1.47) 0.30
 Gymnasium 33/119 0.89 (0.64, 1.26) 0.52 37/123 0.80 (0.58, 1.11) 0.18
 Bachelor’s degree 9/78 0.40 (0.23, 0.68) <.001 34/103 0.76 (0.56, 1.02) 0.07
 Master’s degree 63/208 1 Reference . 127/272 1 Reference .
Living Status
 Left home 58/163 1 Reference . 67/172 1 Reference .
 Live with parents 77/299 0.83 (0.63, 1.08) 0.17 171/393 1.09 (0.86, 1.39) 0.46
BMI level
 Underweight 3/14 0.61 (0.24, 1.59) 0.31 7/18 0.93 (0.51, 1.70) 0.82
 Normal 87/347 1 Reference . 174/434 1 Reference .
 Overweight 37/89 1.26 (0.93, 1.71) 0.13 44/96 1.05 (0.82, 1.35) 0.68
 Obese 8/12 2.00 (1.27, 3.15) 0.003 13/17 1.57 (1.17, 2.11) 0.003
Non-modifiable variables
Season       
 Summer 11/140 1 Reference . 41/170 1 Reference .
 Winter 124/322 3.84 (2.16, 6.85) <.001 197/395 1.76 (1.30, 2.39) <.001
Ethnicity/Race
 Caucasian 102/414 1 Reference . 218/530 1 Reference .
 Other 33/48 2.16 (1.64, 2.84) <.001 20/35 1.36 (0.99, 1.85) 0.05
Sex
 Women 45/226 1 Reference . 113/294 1 Reference .
 Men 90/236 2.09 (1.52, 2.87) <.001 125/271 1.31 (1.06, 1.61) 0.012