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Table 2 Psychosocial variables and loss-to-follow up in pre-ART care

From: Factors associated with pre-ART loss-to-follow up in adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a prospective cohort study

   Number (% LTFU)a LTFU rate (per 100 p-y) Sub Hazard Ratiob(95%CI) P value of relationship with LTFU
Stigma (α = 0.75) 0–35 57 (35.1) 17.86 1.00 0.59
36–41 54 (33.3) 14.62 0.82 (0.43–1.55)
42–47 64 (37.5) 16.58 0.92 (0.51–1.66)
48+ 72 (44.4) 22.80 1.19 (0.67–2.10)
Stigma (continuous)   1.00 (0.98–1.03) 0.83
Categories of HIV disclosure 0 34 (47.1) 25.12 1.00 0.52
1 84 (35.7) 17.28 0.73 (0.39–1.34)
2 58 (41.4) 20.43 0.83 (0.44–1.57)
3 + 71 (33.8) 14.51 0.63 (0.34–1.19)
HIV partner disclosure No 91 (35.2) 17.86 1.00 0.58
Yes 156 (39.7) 18.18 1.13 (0.73–1.74)
Testing reason Self-initiated: non sickness 79 (34.2) 16.96 1.00 0.82
Self-initiated: sickness 91 (41.8) 19.83 1.17 (0.71–1.92)
Other initiated 77 (37.7) 17.13 1.05 (0.62–1.78)
Changed sexual behaviour No 78 (42.3) 20.57 1.00 0.42
Yes 169 (36.1) 16.96 0.84 (0.55–1.28)
Knowledge of people on ART No 44 (45.5) 20.92 1.00 0.41
Yes 203 (36.5) 17.43 0.82 (0.51–1.32)
ART knowledge Low (> = 21) 57 (40.4) 20.24 1.00 0.44
Mid (22–23) 52 (42.3) 23.12 1.06 (0.59–1.92)
High (24) 138 (35.5) 15.74 0.80 (0.48–1.31)
HIV optimism No 79 (40.5) 20.85 1.00 0.46
Yes 168 (31.3) 16.91 0.85 (0.55–1.31)
Social support – time with family < once a month/not at all 20 (35.0) 16.50 1.00 0.61
Once a month 58 (41.4) 18.04 1.12 (0.49–2.57)
At least once a fortnight/several days a week 25 (28.0) 12.20 0.72 (0.26–2.03)
Every day 144 (38.9) 19.49 1.21 (0.55–2.65)
Social support – time with friends < once a month/not at all 74 (32.4) 14.38 1.00 0.49
At least once a fortnight/Once a month 49 (46.9) 20.62 1.53 (0.87–2.69)
Several days a week 68 (38.2) 19.36 1.32 (0.76–2.30)
Every day 56 (37.5) 19.55 1.40 (0.78–2.51)
Social support – rely on family/friends A little/not at all 33 (36.4) 17.48 1.00 0.84
A lot 214 (38.3) 18.16 1.06 (0.59–1.93)
Social support – open with friends/family Not at all 57 (36.8) 15.81 1.00 0.06
A little 93 (31.2) 13.86 0.90 (0.52–1.57)
A lot 97 (45.4) 24.72 1.54 (0.93–2.55)
Social support- confidantc No 16 (43.8) 20.91 1.00 0.49
Yes 226 (38.1) 18.05 0.74 (0.32–1.72)
Social capital – time with neighbours < once a month/not at all 65 (43.1) 18.80 1.00 0.88
At least once a fortnight/Once a month 38 (34.2) 15.17 0.78 (0.41–1.49)
Several days a week 61 (37.7) 18.30 0.93 (0.54–1.59)
Every day 83 (36.1) 18.78 1.00 (0.60–1.67)
Social capital – neighbourhood crimed Common 108 (39.8) 18.85 1.00 0.38
Unusual 87 (33.3) 14.95 0.81 (0.51–1.29)
Rare 49 (42.9) 22.77 1.21(0.72–2.05)
Social capital - group participation No 197 (41.1) 20.32 1.00 0.07
Yes 50 (26.0) 10.69 0.58 (0.32–1.05)
Social capital – neighbours giving time No 63 (38.1) 16.42 1.00 0.50
Yes 184 (38.0) 18.72 1.16 (0.75–1.82)
Social capital – neighbours giving money No 74 (37.8) 15.81 1.00 0.42
Yes 173 (38.2) 19.24 1.19 (0.78–1.82)
Social capital –community working together Individual/neighbours or traditional leaders or municipal/district leaders taking lead 166 (34.9) 16.57 1.00 0.18
Traditional and local leaders together taking lead 81 (44.4) 21.15 1.32 (0.88–2.00)
Relationship qualitye Low (0–23) 59 (42.4) 19.01 1.00 0.91
Mid (24–26) 68 (39.7) 19.26 0.95 (0.55–1.65)
High (27–30) 70 (38.6) 18.29 0.89 (0.52–1.52)
Most recent partner age differentialf Older 186 (36.6) 16.80 1.00 0.40
Same 26 (38.5) 19.87 1.08 (0.55–2.15)
Younger 34 (47.1) 26.21 1.45 (0.85–2.49)
Most recent partner location In neighbourhood 23 (43.5) 21.42 1.00 0.10
Out of neighbourhood 109 (45.0) 22.22 1.06 (0.54–2.08)
With participant 115 (30.4) 13.84 0.67 (0.33–1.34)
Most recent partner HIV disclosure No 92 (35.9) 18.15 1.00 0.69
Yes 155 (39.4) 18.03 1.09 (0.71–1.67)
Most recent partner HIV status Positive 95 (41.1) 18.95 1.00 0.10
Not known 138 (34.1) 16.14 0.78 (0.51–1.19)
Negative 14 (57.1) 34.60 1.78 (0.81–3.90)
  1. a n = 247 unless stated; bCompeting Risks Regression; c n = 242; d n = 244; e n = 197 (for those with a current main partner at enrolment); f n = 246