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Table 1 General characteristics of the participants. For the analyses perceived health was categorized into excellent vs. good/fair/poor, health-related symptoms were categorized into once a week/daily vs. once a month/seldom/never and sport club participation was categorized into never/sometimes vs. regularly

From: Objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity of Finnish 7- to 14-year-old children– associations with perceived health status: a cross-sectional study

  School grade 1–3   4–6   7   p-value*   
  Gender Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls p-value**
  n n = 206 n = 191 n = 174 n = 212 n = 31 n = 37 n = 411 n = 440  
  Height, cm (SD) 138.6 (9.6) 136.3 (7.3) 151.5 (8.2) 154.2 (8.5) 164.0 (9.1) 160.0 (6.1) <0.001 <0.001 0.240
  missing (n) 24 21 15 26 7 5    
  Weight, kg (SD) 33.4 (7.1) 32.5 (7.2) 42.8 (10.3) 45.0 (10.1) 56.5 (15.3) 52.9 (9.1) <0.001 <0.001 0.168
  missing (n) 24 21 15 26 7 5    
  BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 17.3 (2.4) 17.3 (2.7) 18.5 (3.2) 18.8 (3.1) 20.7 (4.0) 20.5 (3.0) <0.001 <0.001 0.227
  missing (n) 24 21 15 26 7 5    
Perceived health, % excellent 72.4 73.9 59.1 54.9 50.0 19.4 0.002 <0.001 0.160
  good 27.1 26.1 38.4 40.8 42.9 74.2    
  fair 0.5 0 2.4 2.9 7.1 6.5    
  poor 0 0 0 1.5 0 0    
  missing (n) 14 15 10 6 3 6    
  p-value*** 0.003 <0.001 0.034 0.024 0.082 <0.001    
  effect sizea 0.15 0.24 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.24    
Neck and shoulder pain, % seldom/never 87.4 86.9 69.5 60.5 60.7 58.1 0.021 <0.001 0.024
  once a month 10.5 11.4 23.2 25.4 32.1 29.0    
  once a week 2.1 1.1 4.3 12.2 3.6 12.9    
  nearly daily 0 0.6 3.0 2.0 3.6 0    
  missing (n) 15 15 10 7 3 6    
  p-value*** 0.016 <0.001 0.036 <0.001 0.536 0.393    
  effect sizea 0.12 0.22 0.11 0.19 0.03 0.04    
Low back pain, % seldom/never 93.7 94.9 83.5 79.5 82.1 67.7 0.102 0.226 0.261
  once a month 5.2 2.8 14.6 16.6 7.1 25.8    
  once a week 1.0 2.3 1.2 3.4 3.6 3.2    
  nearly daily 0 0 0.6 0.5 7.1 3.2    
  missing (n) 15 15 10 7 3 6    
  p-value*** 0.155 0.276 0.759 0.574 0.001 0.329    
  effect sizea 0.07 0.05 0.002 0.003 0.17 0.05    
Stomach pain, % seldom/never 69.1 63.6 71.0 60.2 71.4 35.5 0.352 0.920 0.016
  once a month 26.7 26.7 24.1 30.6 17.9 54.8    
  once a week 4.2 8.0 3.7 8.3 7.1 9.7    
  nearly daily 0 1.7 1.2 1.0 3.6 0    
  missing (n) 15 15 12 6 3 6    
  p-value*** 0.473 0.897 0.970 0.879 0.148 0.963    
  effect sizea 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.07 0.00    
Headache, % seldom/never 66.1 66.9 50.9 48.1 35.7 32.3 0.003 0.004 0.319
  once a month 25.5 23.4 33.1 32.5 35.7 45.2    
  once a week 7.8 8.6 14.1 15.0 28.6 16.1    
  nearly daily 0.5 1.1 1.8 4.4 0 6.5    
  missing (n) 14 16 11 6 3 6    
  p-value*** 0.006 0.005 0.148 0.030 0.011 0.260    
  effect sizea 0.14 0.14 0.07 0.11 0.13 0.06    
Tiredness, % seldom/never 67.0 76.1 61.5 60.7 50.0 51.6 0.173 0.028 0.643
  once a month 23.0 15.3 29.8 25.7 17.9 25.8    
  once a week 9.4 5.7 8.7 11.2 28.6 19.4    
  nearly daily 0.5 2.8 0 2.4 3.6 3.2    
  missing (n) 15 15 13 6 3 6    
  p-value*** 0.490 0.05 0.209 0.356 <0.001 0.063    
  effect sizea 0.04 0.10 0.06 0.05 0.19 0.09    
PA recommendation met, % yes 37.4 39.8 37.9 25.5 25.8 10.8 0.559 <0.001 0.052
(≥60 min MVPA per day) p-value*** 0.788 <0.001 0.668 0.029 0.189 0.007    
  effect sizea 0.01 0.18 0.02 0.10 0.07 0.13    
Sport club participation, % never 17.5 23.6 25.5 24.0 35.7 33.3 0001 0.073 0.573
  sometimes 4.6 4.5 10.9 7.8 7.1 16.7    
  regularly 77.8 71.9 63.6 68.1 57.1 50.0    
  missing (n) 12 13 9 8 3 7    
  p-value*** 0.001 0.187 0.014 0.894 0.114 0.024    
  effect sizea 0.17 0.07 0.13 0.01 0.08 0.11    
  1. MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity
  2. BMI body mass index
  3. *p-value for school grade differences: Analysis of variance for height, weight and BMI, Somers’d test for perceived health, health-related symptoms, physical activity recommendation and sport club participation
  4. **p-value for gender difference: Analysis of variance for height, weight and BMI, Chi2test for perceived health, health-related symptoms, physical activity recommendation and sport club participation
  5. ***p-value for school-grade difference, one group vs. the other two groups: Chi2test
  6. aCramer’s V indicating effect size