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Table 3 Comparison of WISC-IV test scores by sex for different age groupsa

From: Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China

  Girls
Unadjusted analysis Adjusted analysis
MD (95 % CI) P MD (95 % CI) P
Totalb     
 FSIQ −1.19 (-2.41,0.03) 0.056 −0.97 (-2.22,0.28) 0.128
 VCI −2.85 (-4.30,-1.41) <0.001 −2.44 (-3.94,-0.95) 0.001
 WMI 1.16 (0.01,2.30) 0.048 1.32 (0.14,2.51) 0.029
 PRI −3.95 (-5.24,-2.67) <0.001 −3.68 (-5.01,-2.36) <0.001
 PSI 2.91 (1.67,4.14) <0.001 3.10 (1.82,4.38) <0.001
7 yc     
 FSIQ 0.88 (-1.76,3.51) 0.513 0.01 (-2.63,2.64) 0.996
 VCI 0.24 (-2.71,-3.19) 0.875 0.05 (-2.94,3.04) 0.974
 WMI 3.45 (0.94,5.96) 0.007 2.99 (0.46,5.52) 0.020
 PRI −2.75 (-5.89,0.39) 0.086 −3.85 (-7.03,-0.67) 0.018
 PSI 5.24 (2.51,7.97) <0.001 5.05 (2.32,7.77) <0.001
8 yc     
 FSIQ −1.19 (-3.10,0.72) 0.223 −0.12 (-2.02,1.79) 0.906
 VCI −3.14 (-5.40,-0.88) 0.006 −2.39 (-4.67,-0.11) 0.040
 WMI 0.79 (-1.02,2.60) 0.393 1.55 (-0.28,3.39) 0.097
 PRI −4.45 (-6.42,-2.89) <0.001 −3.09 (-5.09,-1.10) 0.002
 PSI 3.85 (1.83,5.86) <0.001 4.43 (2.41,6.46) <0.001
9 yc     
 FSIQ −1.69 (-3.93,0.55) 0.140 −1.92 (-4.12,0.29) 0.088
 VCI −3.84 (-6.56,-1.12) 0.006 −4.56 (-7.44,-1.67) 0.002
 WMI 1.11 (-0.93,3.15) 0.285 0.78 (-1.39,2.96) 0.481
 PRI −2.71 (-4.95,-0.48) 0.017 −3.57 (-5.90,-1.23) 0.003
 PSI 0.24 (-1.87,2.35) 0.824 0.07 (-2.02,2.16) 0.947
10 yc     
 FSIQ −5.29 (-9.99,-0.60) 0.027 −4.91 (-9.56,-0.26) 0.038
 VCI −6.38 (-11.78,-0.98) 0.021 −6.34 (-11.99,-0.70) 0.028
 WMI −1.66 (-6.17,2.84) 0.469 −2.26 (-6.76,2.25) 0.327
 PRI −8.63 (-13.55,-3.71) 0.001 −6.79 (-11.81,-1.76) 0.008
 PSI 1.58 (-2.79,5.95) 0.479 3.14 (-1.29,7.58) 0.165
  1. Abbreviation: MD mean difference, CI confidence interval, FSIQ full-scale intelligence quotient, VCI verbal comprehension index, WMI working memory index, PRI perceptual reasoning index, PSI processing speed index
  2. aMultilevel models were used to assess the WISC-IV test scoresdifferences between boys and girls in early school aged children, with township to level 3, village to level 2, and individual to level 1
  3. b P value adjusted for the age of children, household wealth index, maternal age, type of prenatal micronutrient supplementation, number of children in home, child school level, birth weight, gestational weeks, whether stunted or underweight children and lower respiratory tract infection in the last two weeks
  4. c P value adjusted for the household wealth index, maternal age, type of prenatal micronutrient supplementation, number of children in home, child school level, birth weight, gestational weeks, whether stunted or underweight children and lower respiratory tract infection in the last two weeks