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Table 1 Comparison of the baseline characteristics of children, their mothers and households by sexa

From: Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China

  Gender P
Boys Girls
Number of children 1045 699  
Children age    
 Mean (SD) 8.81 ± 0.03 8.74 ± 0.03 0.096
 7 y 194 (18.6 %) 136 (19.5 %) 0.307
 8 y 426 (40.8 %) 310 (44.3 %)  
 9 y 334 (31.9 %) 199 (28.5 %)  
 10 y 91 (8.7 %) 54 (7.7 %)  
Maternal age (years)    
 Mean (SD) 34.44 ± 0.14 33.23 ± 0.16 <0.001
Women’s education    
 Primary 389 (37.3 %) 244 (35.0 %) 0.616
 Secondary 538 (51.6 %) 371 (53.2 %)  
 High school+ 116 (11.1 %) 82 (11.8 %)  
Father’s education    
 Primary 174 (16.7 %) 114 (16.4 %) 0.943
 Secondary 654 (62.7 %) 442 (63.5 %)  
 High school+ 215 (20.6 %) 140 (20.1 %)  
Women’s occupation    
 Farmer 690 (67.5 %) 460 (67.1 %) 0.843
 Others 332 (32.5 %) 226 (32.9 %)  
Father’s occupation    
 Farmer 380 (37.3 %) 259 (37.6 %) 0.888
 Others 640 (62.7 %) 430 (62.4 %)  
Household wealth index    
 Poorest-1st tertile 334 (32.0 %) 239 (34.2 %) 0.574
 2nd tertile 358 (34.2 %) 226 (32.3 %)  
 Richest-3rd tertile 353 (33.8 %) 234 (23.5 %)  
Parity    
 0 591 (56.6 %) 508 (72.7 %) <0.001
 1 391 (37.4 %) 162 (23.2 %)  
 ≥2 63 (6.0 %) 29 (4.1 %)  
School    
 Village 341 (32.6 %) 255 (36.5 %) 0.096
 Township 431 (41.3 %) 290 (41.5 %)  
 County and plus 273 (26.1 %) 154 (22.0 %)  
Birth weight    
 Mean (SD) 3.26 ± 0.01 3.11 ± 0.02 <0.001
Gestation at delivery (weeks)    
 Mean (SD) 39.81 ± 0.05 39.92 ± 0.07 0.163
Stunted    
 Yes 35 (3.4 %) 44 (6.3 %) 0.004
 No 1010 (96.6 %) 655 (93.7 %)  
Underweight    
 Yes 55 (5.3 %) 59 (8.4 %) 0.009
 No 990 (94.7 %) 640 (91.6 %)  
History of pneumonia    
 Yes 411 (63.9 %) 290 (65.3 %) 0.636
 No 232 (36.1 %) 154 (34.7 %)  
Lower respiratory tract infection    
 Yes 664 (65.3 %) 489 (71.1 %) 0.012
 No 353 (34.7 %) 199 (28.9 %)  
Treatment group    
 Folic acid 355 (34.0 %) 249 (35.6 %) 0.606
 Folic acid/Iron 346 (33.1 %) 216 (30.9 %)  
 Multi micronutrients 344 (32.9 %) 234 (33.5 %)  
  1. aValues are given as Mean ± SD or the percentage of the study population in different supplementation group