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Table 9 Results of included quantitative studies: child’s food preferences (including willingness to taste and taste ratings)

From: A systematic review of the health and well-being impacts of school gardening: synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence

First author (year)
Sample (n)
Outcome measures Outcomes Intervention group Comparison group Control group Group x time results (adjusted, if reported)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Block (2009) [25]
n = 770
SAKG child questionnaire (four point scale) Always willing to try new foods if…    NA NA    NR
Never tried it before (%)
Cooked it (%)
Grown it in the garden (%)
26
32
26
39
51
39
35
39
35
23
34
23
Gibbs (2013) [26]
n = 764 (some differences)a
SAKG parent questionnaire Child always willing to try new foods (%) 27 33 24 27
Gatto (2012) [29]
n = 107
Motivation for Healthy Behaving (17 items) Preference for fruits
Preference for vegetables
NR Change values only reported NA NA NR Change values only reported p = 0.9
p = 0.06
Combination of measures (13 items; seven point scale) Fruit from the garden tastes better than fruit from the store (/7)
Vegetables from the garden taste better than vegetables from the store (/7)
4.9 (2.4)
4.4 (2.5)
6.2 (1.4)
5.8 (1.8)
   4.8 (2.2)
4.2 (2.3)
4.8 (2.2)
4.3 (2.2)
NS
p < 0.05
Jaenke (2012)
n = 127 [15]
Food preference assessment tool Overall willingness to taste (/6)
Overall taste rating (/30)
Taste rating carrot (/5)
Taste rating pea (/5)
Taste rating tomato (/5)
Taste rating broccoli (/5)
Taste rating capsicum (/5)
Taste rating lettuce (/5)
4.54 (1.50)
18.5 (7.4)
3.7 (1.6)
2.9 (1.8)
2.9 (2.3)
2.6 (1.8)
2.4 (2.1)
4.1 (1.5)
Between group mean differences only 4.50 (1.94)
18.1 (9.0)
3.7 (1.6)
2.8 (1.8)
2.4 (2.3)
2.8 (2.0)
3.0 (2.1)
3.7 (1.9)
Between group mean differences only 3.93 (2.04)
15.5 (8.8)
3.5 (1.8)
2.0 (1.9)
2.5 (2.4)
2.1 (2.1)
2.1 (2.2)
3.3 (1.9)
Between group mean differences only p < 0.001
p < 0.001
p = 0.071
p < 0.001
p = 0.03
p < 0.001
p = 0.12
p = 0.02
Morgan (2010) [30]
n = 127 (some differences)a
Reported in Morgan paper only:        
Willingness to taste:
Lettuce (proportion)
Carrot (proportion)
Capsicum (proportion)
Broccoli (proportion)
Tomato (proportion)
Pea (proportion)
0.94
0.89
0.60
0.71
0.60
0.69
0.97
0.92
0.74
0.93
0.76
0.77
0.83
0.89
0.77
0.74
0.56
0.74
0.85
0.88
0.64
0.61
0.48
0.76
0.77
0.82
0.51
0.58
0.60
0.63
0.61
0.70
0.35
0.36
0.40
0.41
0.24
0.14
0.04
0.01
<0.001
0.02
Would you eat this food as a snack?        
Lettuce (proportion)
Carrot (proportion)
Capsicum (proportion)
Broccoli (proportion)
Tomato (proportion)
Pea (proportion)
0.60
0.67
0.22
0.06
0.46
0.21
0.68
0.60
0.43
0.40
0.48
0.61
0.54
0.64
0.26
0.18
0.48
0.24
0.69
0.60
0.29
0.18
0.32
0.32
0.39
0.63
0.23
0.19
0.42
0.25
0.30
0.61
0.29
0.06
0.34
0.11
0.15
0.89
0.39
<0.001
0.31
0.001
Meinen (2012) [31]
n = 404
Student survey (three point scale) Willingness to try fruits and vegetables:
If given a new kind of fruit at home (/3)
If given a new kind of fruit at school (/3)
If given a new kind of vegetable at home (/3)
If given a new kind of vegetable at school (/3)
Would you choose fruit as a snack? (/3)
Would you choose vegetables as a snack? (/3)
2.5 (0.60)
2.2 (0.72)
2.2 (0.70)
2.1 (0.73)
2.4 (0.68)
1.8 (0.74)
2.6 (0.59)
2.3 (0.72)
2.3 (0.70)
2.1 (0.78)
2.5 (0.63)
2.0 (0.73)
NA NA 2.6 (0.58)
2.3 (0.69)
2.3 (0.69)
2.0 (0.71)
2.5 (0.66)
1.9 (0.78)
2.5 (0.65)
2.2 (0.69)
2.2 (0.71)
2.0 (0.75)
2.5 (0.64)
2.0 (0.75)
NR
  Parent survey (10 items; four point scale) Like/dislike of fruits and vegetables:        
Apples (/4)
Watermelon (/4)
Broccoli (/4)
Tomatoes (/4)
Spinach (/4)
Swiss chard (/4)
Zucchinis (/4)
Cucumbers (/4)
Green beans (/4)
Peppers (/4)
3.8 (0.45)
3.7 (0.58)
2.8 (1.05)
2.3 (1.12)
2.2 (0.99)
1.6 (0.82)
2.3 (0.99)
3.0 (0.99)
3.3 (0.89)
2.4 (1.13)
3.7 (0.57)
3.6 (0.68)
2.9 (1.06)
2.5 (1.15)
2.4 (1.14)
2.0 (0.95)
2.4 (0.95)
3.0 (1.05)
3.4 (0.90)
2.6 (1.12)
   3.8 (0.46)
3.6 (0.74)
2.9 (1.02)
2.4 (1.13)
2.2 (1.06)
1.7 (0.96)
2.3 (1.11)
2.9 (1.13)
3.3 (0.95)
2.3 (1.17)
3.8 (0.52)
3.6 (0.75)
2.8 (1.07)
2.5 (1.16)
2.1 (1.02)
1.7 (0.78)
2.3 (1.01)
3.1 (1.01)
3.4 (0.85)
2.3 (1.09)
 
Morris (2001) [32]
n = 97
Student questionnaire (six items; five point scale) Mean total tasting score indicating willingness to taste (/5)
Vegetables tasted: spinach, carrots, peas, broccoli, zucchini and red bell pepper.
4.07 (0.31)a 4.83 (0.23)a NA NA 3.90 (0.30)a 3.90 (0.29)a p < 0.005
Morris (2002) [33] (1)
n = 213
Vegetable preference survey (six items; five point scale) Vegetable preference score at post-test: NR Post-test: NR Post-test: NR Post-test:  
Broccoli (/5)
Carrots (/5)
Jicama (/5)
Snow peas (/5)
Spinach (/5)
Zucchini (/5)
  3.8 (0.1)a
4.7 (0.1)a
3.9 (0.2)a
3.8 (0.2)a
3.0 (0.2)a
4.0 (0.2)a
  3.8 (0.1)a
4.7 (0.1)a
3.8 (0.2)a
3.1 (0.2)a
3.2 (0.2)a
3.2 (0.1)a
  3.2 (0.2)a
4.4 (0.1)a
3.6 (0.2)a
2.9 (0.2)a
3.1 (0.2)a
3.1 (0.2)a
F = 4.840; p < 0.01
F = 5.768; p < 0.005
NR
F = 7.657; p < 0.005
NR
F = 10.012; p < 0.0005
Vegetable preference score at 6 m follow up:   Follow up:   Follow up:   Follow up:  
Broccoli (/5)
Carrots (/5)
Jicama (/5)
Snow peas (/5)
Spinach (/5)
Zucchini (/5)
  4.0 (0.1)a
4.6 (0.1)a
3.8 (0.2)a
3.7 (0.2)a
3.4 (0.1)a
4.0 (0.1)a
  3.7 (0.1)a
4.7 (0.1)a
3.4 (0.2)a
3.0 (0.2)a
3.2 (0.1)a
3.4 (0.1)a
  3.5 (0.2)a
4.4 (0.1)a
3.2 (0.2)a
3.0 (0.2)a
3.3 (0.2)a
3.2 (0.2)a
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
Morris (2002) [34] (2)
n = 215
Vegetable preference survey (six items; yes/no/don’t know) Vegetable preferences at post-test:
Do you eat this food at home? (/6)
Would you ask your family to buy this food? (/6)
Would you eat this food as a snack? (/6)
NR Post-test:
3.3 (0.1)a
2.9 (0.2)a
2.4 (0.2)a
NR Post-test:
3.1 (0.1)a
2.6 (0.2)a
2.2 (0.2)a
NR Post-test:
2.7 (0.2)a
1.9 (0.2)a
1.6 (0.2)a
F = 4.165; p < 0.05
F = 7.181; p < 0.005
F = 5.239; p < 0.01
Vegetable preferences at 6 m follow up:   Follow up:   Follow up:   Follow up:  
Do you eat this food at home? (/6)
Would you ask your family to buy this food? (/6)
Would you eat this food as a snack? (/6)
  3.2 (0.1)a
2.6 (0.2)a
2.4 (0.2)a
  3.1 (0.2)a
2.5 (0.2)a
1.9 (0.2)a
  2.8 (0.2)a
2.4 (0.2)a
1.5 (0.2)a
NR
NR
F = 6.152; p < 0.005
O’Brien (2006) [35]
n = 38
FV preference assessment (four point scale) Total fruit preference (/8)
Total vegetable preference (/16)
Fruits and vegetables tasted unknown
7.18 (0.31)a
10.94 (0.92)a
7.06 (0.34)a
11.24 (0.92)a
NA NA 6.05 (0.33)a
8.81 (0.91)a
6.05 (0.33)a
9.05 (0.97)a
NR
Parmer (2009) [37]
n = 115
FV preference questionnaire (six items; five point scale) Willingness to taste (/6)
Ratings of tasted fruits and vegetables (/5)
Fruits and vegetables tasted: carrots, broccoli, spinach, zucchini, cabbage and blueberries.
4.82 (1.6)
3.45 (0.9)
5.50 (1.0)
4.38 (0.5)
5.11 (1.1)
3.85 (0.8)
5.33 (1.2)
4.15 (0.6)
3.84 (2.1)
3.99 (0.7)
4.23 (2.0)
3.82 (0.5)
F = 0.878; p = 0.42
F = 14.45; p < 0.001
Parmer (2007) [36]
n = 115
FV preference survey (15 items; three point scale) Fruit preference (/3)
Vegetable preference (/3)
2.59 (0.4)
2.08 (0.5)
2.60 (0.3)
2.03 (0.5)
2.70 (0.3)
2.20 (0.6)
2.73 (0.3)
2.14 (0.6)
2.59 (0.4)
2.10 (0.5)
2.57 (0.3)
1.98 (0.5)
NR
NR
Ratcliffe (2011) [38]
n = 320
Taste test (five items; five point scale) Willingness to taste vegetables (/5)
Preference for vegetables (/5)
Vegetables tasted: carrots, string beans, snow peas, broccoli and Swiss chard.
NR Change values only reported NA NA NR Change values only reported 0.286
0.279
Garden Vegetables Frequency Questionnaire (22 items plus two added) Preference for vegetables:  
all (24 items)
grown in school garden (11 items)
not grown in school garden (13 items)
0.029
0.017
0.23
Willingness to taste vegetables:  
all (24 items)
grown in school garden (11 items)
not grown in school garden (13 items)
<0.001
<0.001
0.025
  1. F fruits, V vegetables, FV fruits and vegetables, SD standard deviation (or standard error wherea); OR odds ratio, F F statistic from ANOVA
  2. asee results text for explanation of how differences in duplicate data reporting were handled
  3. No meta-analysis due to heterogeneity of outcome measures