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Table 12 Results of included quantitative studies: child’s well-being (including social skills)

From: A systematic review of the health and well-being impacts of school gardening: synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence

First author (year)
Sample (n)
Outcome measures Outcomes Intervention group Comparison group Control group Group x time results (adjusted, if reported)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Block (2012) [24]
n = 764
KIDSCREEN-10 Child quality of life score 48.9 (8.4) 50.3 (8.1) NA NA 48.2 (7.9) 49.1 (7.3) Adjusted statistic = 1.23 (0.7); p = 0.09
Teacher questionnaire Teacher strongly agrees that:        
Student social behaviour is good (%) 41.9 48.9    41.9 53.8 p = 0.2
Students cooperate well with other students (%) 48.8 57.8    48.4 65.4 Adjusted statistic = 0.51; p = 0.3
Morgan (2010) [30]
n = 127
Quality of school life instrument (40 items) Quality of school life 3.2 (0.2) Between group mean differences only 3.2 (0.3) Between group mean differences only 3.0 (0.4) Between group mean differences only p = 0.98
Robinson (2005) [39]
n = 281
Youth Life Skills Inventory (32 questions; three point scale) Overall life skills score (/96)
Working with groups
Self-understanding
Leadership
Decision making
Communication
Volunteerism
83.02 (7.95)
13.33 (1.74)
16.78 (1.96)
12.62 (2.05)
13.71 (1.64)
10.59 (1.55)
16.57 (1.77)
84.51 (7.81)
14.09 (1.41)
18.02 (1.76)
12.63 (1.85)
13.72 (1.44)
10.42 (1.46)
16.23 (2.08)
NA NA 85.8 (6.14)
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
86.49 (6.19)
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
Waliczek (2001) [17]
n = 589
Self-Report of Personality Scale for children and adolescents Interpersonal relationships Means by age and gender only Means by age and gender only NA NA Means by age and gender only Means by age and gender only NR
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. No meta-analysis due to heterogeneity of outcome measures
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