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Table 2 Population-based intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ρ) for neighborhood clustering; N = 481 (CKD-AFRiKA, 2014)

From: Neighborhood clustering of non-communicable diseases: results from a community-based study in Northern Tanzania

  Urban   Rural   Overall  
  Mean (SD) or prevalence (%)b ρ (95 % CI) Mean (SD) or prevalence (%) ρ (95 % CI) Mean (SD) or prevalence (%) ρ (95 % CI)
Social characteristics       
 Ongoing tobacco use 15.2 % 0.022 (0.000–0.073) 19.6 % 0.042 (0.000–0.159) 18.0 % 0.028 (0.000–0.075)
 Ongoing alcohol use 35.4 % 0.069 (0.000–0.145) 45.8 % 0.331 (0.007–0.654) 41.9 % 0.125 (0.034–0.216)
Self-reported medical history       
 Diabetes 9.68 % 0.035 (0.000–0.094) 5.51 % 0.059(0.000–0.194) 7.06 % 0.045 (0.000–0.100)
 Hypertension 20.7 % 0.109 (0.012–0.207) 16.1 % 0.014 (0.000–0.101) 17.8 % 0.100 (0.020–0.181)
 Stroke 11.8 % 0.000 (0.000–0.039) 2.07 % 0.000 (0.000–0.070) 17.4 % 0.000 (0.000–0.033)
 Heart disease 2.64 % 0.000 (0.000–0.039) 0.72 % 0.047 (0.000–0.169) 1.44 % 0.000 (0.000–0.033)
 Tuberculosis 2.92 % 0.000 (0.000–0.039) 0.00 % N/Aa 1.09 % 0.000 (0.000–0.033)
 Hepatitis 2.48 % 0.000 (0.000–0.039) 1.17 % 0.000 (0.000–0.070) 1.66 % 0.000 (0.000–0.033)
 Malaria 87.8 % 0.000 (0.000–0.039) 89.0 % 0.001 (0.000–0.073) 88.6 % 0.000 (0.000–0.033)
 Cancer 1.04 % 0.009 (0.000–0.039) 0.00 % N/Aa 0.39 % 0.000 (0.000–0.033)
 COPD/asthma 3.39 % 0.000 (0.000–0.039) 1.31 % 0.000 (0.000–0.071) 2.08 % 0.000 (0.000–0.033)
 HIV/AIDS 5.19 % 0.048 (0.000–0.113) 0.59 % 0.010 (0.000–0.093) 0.99 % 0.054 (0.006–0.114)
 Kidney disease 3.29 % 0.010 (0.000–0.054) 0.00 % N/Aa 1.22 % 0.020 (0.000–0.063)
Health outcome       
 Hypertension 19.4 % 0.056 (0.000–0.125) 33.2 % 0.167 (0.000–0.398) 28.0 % 0.075 (0.001–0.126)
 Obesity 25.1 % 0.035 (0.000–0.094) 15.6 % 0.009 (0.000–0.091) 19.1 % 0.040 (0.000–0.093)
 Glucose impairment 24.0 % 0.025 (0.000–0.078) 20.3 % 0.110 (0.000–0.293) 21.7 % 0.039 (0.000–0.918)
 Pre-diabetes 15.8 % 0.001 (0.000–0.040) 16.1 % 0.149 (0.000–0.367) 16.0 % 0.031 (0.000–0.079)
 Diabetes 8.21 % 0.000 (0.000–0.039) 4.20 % 0.000 (0.000–0.070) 5.70 % 0.000 (0.000–0.033)
 Chronic kidney disease 15.2 % 0.036 (0.000–0.094) 2.03 % 0.000 (0.000–0.070) 7.00 % 0.044 (0.000–0.096)
Physical and laboratory measurements       
 SBP (mmHg) 124.0 (24.3) 0.024 (0.000–0.077) 132.8 (26.4) 0.207 (0.000–0.467) 129.5 (24.3) 0.064 (0.000–0.129)
 DBP (mmHg) 76.1 (12.3) 0.025 (0.000–0.077) 78.5 (12.1) 0.199 (0.000–0.453) 77.6(12.2) 0.056 (0.000–0.116)
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.2 (8.23) 0.049 (0.000–0.115) 25.6 (13.7) 0.031 (0.000–0.136) 25.8 (12.0) 0.032 (0.000–0.081)
 HbA1C (%) 5.98 (1.28) 0.000 (0.000–0.039) 6.83 (12.7) 0.025 (0.000–0.123) 6.51 (10.1) 0.012 (0.000–0.050)
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 68.2 (27.2) 0.000 (0.000–0.040) 61.8 (13.6) 0.049 (0.000–0.174) 64.2 (20.0) 0.000 (0.000–0.034)
 Albuminuria 14.1 % 0.015 (0.000–0.063) 1.31 % 0.014 (0.000–0.100) 6.08 % 0.038 (0.000–0.090)
 eGFR (mg/L/min)(MDRD) 104.7 (24.4) 0.078 (0.000–0.161) 128.5 (203.2) 0.001 (0.000–0.073) 119.7 (161.9) 0.005 (0.000–0.041)
 eGFR (mg/L/min) (CKD-EPI) 119.0 (26.6) 0.048 (0.000–0.117) 146.1 (224.3) 0.000 (0.000–0.073) 136.5 (222.1) 0.000 (0.000–0.036)
  1. SD standard deviation, ρ intra-cluster correlation coefficient, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, MDRD modification of diet in renal disease equation (without the race factor) for eGFR, CKD-EPI CKD epidemiology collaboration equation (without the race factor) for eGFR
  2. aToo few positive events/outcomes were observed in these categories, bAge-and gender-weighted estimates