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Table 1 Unweighted proportions for demographic, social characteristics, self-reported medical histories, health outcomes, and design parameters stratified by setting; N = 481 (CKD-AFRiKA, 2014)

From: Neighborhood clustering of non-communicable diseases: results from a community-based study in Northern Tanzania

Variable (n, %) Urban Rural Total
(n = 370) (n = 111) (n = 481)
Gender (female) 278 (75.1 %) 80 (72.1 %) 358 (74.4 %)
Age    
 18–39 years old 138 (37.3 %) 34 (30.6 %) 172 (35.8 %)
 40–59 years old 145 (39.2 %) 46 (41.5 %) 191 (39.7 %)
 60+ years old 87 (23.5 %) 31 (27.9 %) 118 (24.5 %)
Ethnicity    
 Chagga 230 (62.2 %) 58 (52.3 %) 288 (59.9 %)
 Pare 35 (9.5 %) 31 (27.9 %) 66 (13.7 %
 Sambaa 18 (4.9 %) 9 (8.1 %) 27 (5.6 %)
 Othera 87 (23.5 %) 13 (11.7 %) 100 (20.8 %)
Education    
 None 27 (7.3 %) 4 (3.6 %) 31 (6.4 %)
 Primary 253 (68.4 %) 96 (86.5 %) 349 (72.6 %)
 Secondary 64 (17.3 %) 10 (9.0 %) 74 (15.4 %)
 Post-secondary 26 (7.0 %) 1 (0.9 %) 27 (5.6 %)
Occupation    
 Unemployedb 71 (19.2 %) 3 (2.7 %) 74 (15.4 %)
 Farmer/wage earner 114 (30.8 %) 85 (76.6 %) 199 (41.4 %)
 Small business/vendors 143 (38.6 %) 15 (13.5 %) 158 (32.8 %)
 Professionalc 42 (11.4 %) 8 (7.2 %) 50 (10.4 %)
Social characteristics    
 Ongoing tobacco use 34 (9.2 %) 16 (14.4 %) 50 (10.4 %)
 Ongoing alcohol use 146 (39.5 %) 52 (46.9 %) 198 (41.2 %)
Self-reported medical history    
 Diabetes 53 (14.3 %) 8 (7.2 %) 61 (12.7 %)
 Hypertension 113 (30.6 %) 21 (19.1 %) 134 (28.0 %)
 Stroke 6 (1.6 %) 2 (1.8 %) 8 (1.7 %)
 Heart diseased 17 (4.6 %) 1 (0.9 %) 18 (3.7 %)
 Tuberculosis 10 (2.7 %) 0 (0 %) 10 (2.1 %)
 Hepatitis 12 (3.2 %) 2 (1.8 %) 14 (2.9 %)
 Malaria 329 (88.9 %) 98 (88.3 %) 427 (88.8 %)
 Cancer 6 (1.6 %) 0 (0 %) 6 (1.3 %)
 COPD/asthma 23 (6.2 %) 2 (1.8 %) 25 (5.2 %)
 HIV/AIDS 20 (5.4 %) 1 (0.9 %) 21 (4.4 %)
 Kidney disease 14 (3.8 %) 0 (0 %) 14 (2.9 %)
Health condition    
 Hypertension 112 (30.3 %) 37 (33.3 %) 149 (31.0 %)
 Obesity 116 (31.4 %) 22 (19.8 %) 138 (28.7 %)
 Glucose impairment 102 (27.6 %) 27 (24.3 %) 129 (26.8 %)
 Pre-diabetes 63 (17.0 %) 21 (18.9 %) 84 (17.5 %)
 Diabetes 39 (10.5 %) 6 (5.4 %) 45 (9.4 %)
 Chronic kidney disease 54 (14.6 %) 3 (2.70 %) 57 (11.9 %)
Design parameters    
 Neighborhood clusters (k) 23 6 29
 Median cluster size (IQR) 12.0 (7.5–19.5) 16.0 (15–26) 13.0 (9–21)
 Cluster size range 6–49 11–32 6–49
 Participants enrolled 370 111 481
  1. aOther tribal ethnicities represented in our groups include Luguru, Kilindi, Kurya, Mziguwa, Mnyisanzu, Rangi, Jita, Nyambo, and Kaguru
  2. bIncluded housewives and students
  3. cProfessional included any salaried position (e.g. nurse, teacher, government employee, etc.) and retired persons
  4. dHeart disease included coronary disease, heart failure, or structural diseases