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Table 3 Predicting premature exclusive breast feeding cessation among mothers in rural Kenyaa, b

From: Maternal knowledge, outcome expectancies and normative beliefs as determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: a cross-sectional study in rural Kenya

Variable Percent/mean score SD Median HR 95 % CI
Breastfeeding-related knowledge
A child should be breast-fed within one hour of his/her birth (%) 96 - - 0.70 0.30, 1.65
A new-born child should be fed only on breast-milk (%) 96 - - 0.42* 0.18, 0.97
It is important to give a new-born child other liquids like water (salty, sugary or plain) 19 - - 2.52* 1.68, 3.80
It is important to give a new-born child other foods like porridge, tea, juice, etc. 12 - - 1.86* 1.13, 3.04
A child less than 6 months old should be fed only on breast-milk (no water) 84 - - 0.37* 0.24, 0.57
A child who is less than 6 months old should be breastfed on demand 90 - - 0.87 0.48, 1.55
It is important to give other liquids/foods to a child before he/she reaches 6 months old 12 - - 2.40* 1.51, 3.83
Outcome expectancies: child
A child less than 6 months old who is fed only breastmilk will:
get hungry more quickly compared to a child who is fed other foods/drinks 34.50 - - 1.62* 1.09, 2.39
gain less weight compared to a child who is fed other foods/drinks 26.25 - - 1.80* 1.20, 2.70
have fewer diseases (like diarrhea) compared to a child who is fed other foods/drinks 72.50 - - 1.48 0.92, 2.38
have fewer stomach problems compared to a child who is fed other foods/drinks 72.75 - - 1.08 0.68, 1.70
feel more thirsty compared to a child who is fed other foods/drinks 21.25 - - 1.78* 1.17, 2.70
Outcome expectancies: mother
A mother who feeds her young child, less than 6 months old, only breast-milk:
will look thinner compared than a mother who feeds her young child other foods/drinks 21.25 - - 2.43* 1.62, 3.66
will feel hungry more quickly compared to a mother who feeds her young child other foods/drinks 38.50 - - 2.31* 1.55, 3.42
will get sick/ill more easily compared to a mother who feeds her young child other foods/drinks 13.25 - - 2.70* 1.73, 4.21
will have more sagging breasts compared to a mother who feeds her young child other foods/drinks 29.75 - - 2.13* 1.44, 3.16
cannot do other things outside the home or go places compared to a mother who feeds her young child other foods/drinks 20.00 - - 2.37* 1.57, 3.59
“Outcome expectancies: mother” score 3.77 1.44 4.00 0.70* 0.62, 0.79
Normative beliefs
EBF not acceptable to child’s father (%) 14 - - 2.17* 1.38, 3.42
EBF not acceptable to in-laws (%) 23 - - 2.02* 1.34, 3.04
EBF not acceptable in community (%) 18 - - 1.50 0.95, 2.35
EBF acceptability score 2.44 0.92 3.00 0.72* 0.60, 0.86
It is embarrassing to breast feed in public (%) 24 - - 1.81* 1.21, 2.73
  1. * pvalue < 0.05
  2. CI confidence interval, EBF exclusive breast feeding, HR hazards ratio, SD standard deviation
  3. HR and associated CI from each row represents results from one multiple survival analysis regression model that includes child’s sex, mother’s school years and the number of household members below five years of age
  4. a N = 394
  5. bReference category for all non-composite score variables=”disagree”