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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios for low ratings on SWEMWBS components, low overall SWEMWBS scores and low LS in those reporting individual adverse childhood experience types

From: Relationships between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental well-being: results from an English national household survey

ACE   In the last two weeks, never or rarelya Lowb
Feeling optimistic Feeling useful Feeling relaxed Dealing well with problems Thinking clearly Feeling close to others Able to make up own mind SWEMWBS score LS
Physical abuse AOR 1.50 1.53 1.39    1.55    1.49
95 % CIs 1.16–1.94 1.11–2.13 1.06–1.83    1.05–2.28    1.11–2.00
P ** * * ns ns * ns ns **
Emotional abuse AOR   1.46 1.47    2.12   1.73 1.54
95 % CIs   1.06–2.00 1.13–1.89    1.46–3.08   1.36–2.20 1.16–2.05
P ns * ** ns ns *** ns *** **
Sexual abuse AOR 1.55   1.52 1.82 2.68   2.5 2.30 1.79
95 % CIs 1.10–2.20   1.08–2.12 1.19–2.79 1.64–4.38   1.40–4.49 1.67–3.18 1.27–2.54
P * ns * ** *** ns ** *** **
Parental separation AOR na    na na na na   na
95 % CIs          
P - ns ns      ns  
Domestic violence AOR          
95 % CIs          
P ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
Mental illness AOR 1.43 1.44   1.78 1.79 2.04 1.85 1.97 1.47
95 % CIs 1.09–1.88 1.04–2.00   1.25–2.53 1.15–2.78 1.42–2.94 1.12–3.07 1.52–2.55 1.09–1.97
P * * ns ** * *** * *** *
Alcohol problem AOR   1.46 1.41 1.56    na   1.52
95 % CIs   1.02–2.07 1.06–1.89 1.04–2.34      1.11–2.08
P ns * * * ns ns   ns *
Drug misuse AOR     1.76 2.45     
95 % CIs     1.06–2.93 1.34–4.46     
P ns ns ns * ** ns ns ns ns
Incarceration AOR    1.53     na   
95 % CIs    1.03–2.26       
P ns ns * ns ns ns   ns ns
  1. aVariables represent the individual component questions in the SWEMWBS scale. bSWEMWBS (Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale) score <23; LS (life satisfaction) rating <6. Analysis used backward conditional logistic regression. Separate models were run for each SWEMWBS component, low SWEMWBS score and low LS. Models included ACE types significantly related to each outcome in bivariate analysis along with age, gender, IMD quintile of deprivation and ethnicity. na not applicable; variable not included in the model due to lack of relationship in bivariate analyses. For each ACE, the reference group is those that did not report the ACE. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ns not significant