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Table 3 Bivariate relationships between mental well-being measures and individual adverse childhood experience types

From: Relationships between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental well-being: results from an English national household survey

ACE All In the last two weeks, % never or rarelya: % with lowb:
Feeling optimistic Feeling useful Feeling relaxed Dealing well with problems Thinking clearly Feeling close to others Able to make up own mind SWEMWBS score LS
Physical abuse
 No 85.7 11.6 7.2 13.0 5.6 3.0 4.2 2.3 11.1 9.6
 Yes 14.3 20.5 15.6 23.9 10.1 6.5 11.9 3.9 24.2 23.2
 P   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.020 <0.001 <0.001
Emotional abuse
 No 82.7 11.9 7.1 12.6 5.5 3.0 3.9 2.2 10.7 9.3
 Yes 17.3 17.6 14.7 24.0 9.8 5.8 11.9 4.0 24.0 22.2
 P   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.007 <0.001 <0.001
Sexual abuse
 No 93.8 12.2 7.9 13.6 5.7 3.0 4.8 2.3 11.7 10.4
 Yes 6.2 23.4 16.7 28.9 14.2 10.9 13.0 6.7 33.2 28.9
 P   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Parental separation
 No 77.4 12.9 7.8 13.2 6.1 3.5 5.2 2.5 12.4 11.1
 Yes 22.6 12.8 10.5 19.2 6.7 3.3 5.4 2.7 15.1 13.2
 P   0.906 0.013 <0.001 0.486 0.744 0.880 0.657 0.040 0.084
Domestic violence
 No 87.9 12.2 8.0 13.3 5.6 3.2 4.7 2.3 11.8 10.7
 Yes 12.1 18.1 11.7 23.2 10.4 5.7 9.2 4.0 21.6 17.9
 P   <0.001 0.006 <0.001 <0.001 0.004 <0.001 0.025 <0.001 <0.001
Mental illness
 No 87.9 12.0 7.6 13.3 5.4 3.0 4.3 2.2 11.2 10.2
 Yes 12.1 19.1 14.7 23.4 12.4 7.2 12.0 4.9 25.9 21.5
 P   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Alcohol misuse
 No 90.9 12.3 7.7 13.4 5.5 3.2 4.8 2.4 11.9 10.3
 Yes 9.1 19.0 16.1 25.8 13.0 6.5 9.9 4.0 24.4 23.8
 P   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.001 <0.001 0.070 <0.001 <0.001
Drug misuse
 No 96.1 12.5 8.2 14.2 5.8 3.2 5.0 2.4 12.6 11.2
 Yes 3.9 20.9 15.0 22.9 16.3 11.1 11.2 5.2 23.7 19.6
 P   0.002 0.003 0.003 <0.001 <0.001 0.001 0.030 <0.001 0.001
Incarceration
 No 95.9 12.5 8.1 13.9 5.9 3.3 5.0 2.5 12.5 11.1
 Yes 4.1 21.5 17.1 28.5 13.9 7.0 12.0 2.5 24.7 22.2
 P   0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.015 <0.001 0.995 <0.001 <0.001
  1. aVariables represent the individual component questions in the SWEMWBS scale. bSWEMWBS (Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale) score <23; LS (life satisfaction) rating <6